[A] World Civilizations II
[A] World Civilizations II GenEd 111
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rashawn Koss on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GenEd 111 at Washington State University taught by Trevor Bond in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/206029/gened-111-washington-state-university in General Education at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Revolution 3232011 85200 PM Confucius 551 479 BCE Latin form from Master Kung Out of work political advisor Analects selected sayings Ideal of Humanity or Human hearted ness concern for the rights of others never do to others what you would not like them to do to you Concept of duty must serve the familycommunity good Rule by merit Family the key social unit 0 Filial Piety 0 Five Relationships Son subordinate to father Wife to the husband Younger brother to older brother All subordinate to the Emperor Friend and friend Confucius on Filial Piety A selection from the Analects Parents when alive should be served according to propriety when dead they should be buried according to propriety and they should then be sacrificed to according to propriety Do not make your parents anxious about anything else than your being sick In serving his parents a son may protest to them but gently If he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice he shows an increased degree of reverence but does not abandon his purpose Should they punish him he does not allow himself to murmur The new revolutionary rhetoric inspired common men no longer to defer to gentlemen of higher rank Many women demanded greater respect and equality Slaves often fled to British forces expecting freedom in exchange for loyalty to the crown In Shay s Rebellion in 1786 independent farmers in Massachusetts organized an armed rebellion against taxes they could not pay While federalists and Anti federalists continued to debate the function and size of the federal government they kept this debate civil and within the confines of the constitutional arena The election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800 signaled the triumph of a new model in which social tensions would be diffused through western expansion as land ownership became easier For the time being the Revolution ignored slaves free African Americans women and Native Americans The French Revolution 1798 1799 The French Revolution even more than the American Revolution inspired many other rebellions around the world that lasted into the twentieth century Ad in the American Revolution Enlightenment ideas against oppressive government had gained legitimacy among millions and helped propel the nation into revolution 0 In addition harvests had been poor for years leading many peasants to protest heavy tax burdens King Louis XVI opened the door for reform when he convened the Estates General in 1788 in order to seek new forms of revenue to service the crown s debt Reform quickly turned to revolution as members of the Third Estate the common people called for greater representation 0 Upon hearing of these events peasants rose up in the countryside to protest the feudal dues and obligations they resented o On July 14 1789 a Parisian crowd attacked the Bastille an infamous political prison o In august the Third Estate calling itself a national assembly abolished feudal privileges of the nobility and clergy and passed a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens It recognized political equality and popular sovereignty Some women suggested that woman be included as citizens but their petitions were rejected As the Revolution gathered speed it split into different directions 0 Liberals or Girondins wanted a constitutional monarchy o Jacobins wanted to create a pure republic with a new culture 0 When the king tried to flee the country in 1791 Jacobins gained the upper hand They purged the assembly of counter revolutionaries held new elections using universal male suffrage in 1792 declared France to be a republic and executed the King in 1793 They launched a Reign of Terror under the leadership of Robespierre that saw the executions of 40000 persons judged enemies of the state In 1804 Napoleon declared himself emperor of the French nation His reign checked the excesses of the Radical Era but let many revolutionary changes continue He allowed religious freedom He submitted a constitution to a plebiscite His Code Napoleon codified the nation s laws into one legal framework The code emphasized the equality of men and the protection of individual property Napoleon s Empire 1799 1815 Napoleon envisioned a new Roman empire based on the Principled he espoused in France His attempts to bring Europe under French rule laid the foundations for nineteenth century nationalist strife 0 Strong local resistance appeared in Spain Germany and Egypt 0 As locals in areas occupied by the French tired of hearing that French ways were superior they looked to their own past for inspiration Napoleon s military campaigns became a global conflict with fighting in Africa Europe and the Americas 0 A coalition of Prussia Austria Russia and Britain finally defeated him in 1815 Revolutions in the Caribbean and Iberian America Revolution spread to the Caribbean and Iberian America 0 In the 17805 Andean Indians called for freedom from the forced labor draft and other regulations and besieged Spanish authorities 0 In the 17905 slaves successfully revolted against French authorities and French settlers in Saint Domingue 0 These rebellions confirmed Iberian American elites loyalty to the crowns of Portugal and Spain for the time being 0 Even when they joined in the call for severing colonial ties they sought to establish regimes less committed to revolutionary goals than in the United States or in France Revolution in Saint Domingue Haiti 0 The island slaves 500000 outnumbered whites 40000 and free people of color 30000 After 1789 whites campaigned for self government while slaves used the language of the French Revolution to call for freedom By 1791 the island had descended into civil war In 1792 slaves fought French troops sent to restore order In 1793 the French National Convention abolished slavery Former slaves took over the colony O O O O O O o In 1802 Napoleon tried to reassert French authority and slavery by sending an army of 58000 troops to the island Toussaint L Ouvertu re organized resistance among the former slaves Most French troops died of disease or wounds inflicted by guerillas o In 1804 leaders declared the Republic of Haiti International recognition proved elusive Mexico s independence Unlike Brazil Mexico and other Spanish colonies gained autonomy from the Spanish crown during the Napoleonic Wars 0 When the crown regained power creoles American born Spaniards resented the reappointment of peninsulars officials from Spain to power and wished to regain this elite position They used Enlightenment ideas to back up their grievances In Mexico between 1810 and 1813 Fathers Hidalgo and Morelos organized a revolt of peasants Indians and artisans calling for the redistribution of wealth and land reform among other things 0 Creoles peninsulars and the Spanish army overcame the rebellion after years of fighting Shen Fu Discussion Questions 3232011 85200 PM GenEd 111 Section 2 Bond and Warden Traditional Chinese ideal five generations under one roof Filial Piety Marriage Ceremony from Pang Mei Chang s Bound Feet amp Western Dress The Liji The Book of Rites said Marriage is to make a union between two persons of different families the object of which is to serve on the one hand the ancestors in the temple and to perpetuate on the other hand the coming generation What would do you think YUn s children think of her Is Shen Fu a good son husband father Is YUn a good daughter wife mother How are each of the sections structured What do we learn of Ch ing Dynasty society in the book Industrial Revolution 3232011 85200 PM The manufacturing superpowers of the 18th century China and India China 0 Textiles porcelain ceramics tea etc o Enormous population large inexpensive labor force and built in market Huge trade surplus with the West a Opium trade cuts into this throughout the 18th century Britain s economic transformation a large number of factors came into play in the late 18th century to produce Britain s economic transformation 0 Britain had a large accessible source of coal and iron ore technological improvement steam engine effective system to mobilize capital British merchants has access to most of world s markets large and adaptable labor force eager to work for wages why so many British workers 0 Agricultural production had increased allowing for more food with relatively fewer farmers growth of urban areas increased pool of waged laborers This transformation spread and organized a new division of labor around the world 0 Britain and other industrial societies increasingly exported manufactured goods to dependencies or colonies in exchange for agricultural products Trading and Financing 0 New products such as tea and soap joined sugar and silver as strong international commercial commodities In industrial societies even the poor could afford these and other products Merchants reaped the greatest reward from this expansion of international trade and gained higher status They provided financing took risks Accountants and lawyers also profited This new class of commercial men and women are known as the bourgeoisie The Bourgeoisie s rise to prominence altered the social and political equation 0 The bourgeoisie also began to push for free trade The first region of the world to practice free trade was Latin America a The British Seized on this opportunity for cheap foodstuffs and other staples By the 1840 s the British had ended most protectionist regulations and adopted the attitude that domestic wealth depended on the export of industrial goods and the import of basic commodities Manufacturing 0 In the late 18th century the build up of technical knowledge allowed for huge improvements in manufacturing 000 I I O O O The steam engine developed by James Watt of Scotland and others was paramount here u Steam power allowed for trains and steamships that revolutionized transportation n One of the first areas to be revolutionized by these technological innovations was the textile industry in Britain 0 From 1782 1812 the price of cotton cloth declined by 90 o The cotton gin allowed the American South to become Britain s principal supplier of cotton 0 By 1848 cotton textiles were 40 of Britain s exports Working and living 0 The industrial revolution altered where and how people worked for all those caught in its tentacles Increasingly Europe s workers dwelled in cities u Cities were not healthy places Children wives and husbands worked outside the home for often paltry wages Real wages did not begin to rise until after 1850 Idleness meant no source of income Hours were long and conditions often unsafe A more rigid concept of work developed Employers used clocks to impose discipline and measure efficiency This economic reordering transformed all aspects of the lives of those caught up in it It altered what they traded and what they consumed It required new methods of mobilizing capital It changed patterns and rhythms of work routines It changed where people worked and lived and family size and arrangements It changed how those caught up in industrialism viewed those who were not The Sadler report 1832 Outline a typical workday for Matthew Crabtree o 19 hour day 5am 9pm If you were late to work you were beaten He would run to work and cry the whole way there to not be late Keeping up with work was very hard even if you weren t tired If you didn t work fast enough you were beaten by hand and with instruments roller Got home after labor and was very fatigued At home didn t spend time with parents but had a little bit of supper that was provided then had to go immediately to bed Overlabor injured his health and his appetite so he didn t eat much Not a wealthy family Low wages Making all the kids work Distance from the factory Based on Crabtree s interview describe the appearance of the factory where he worked O 0000 O O 0 Dirty grungy were always able to hear someone crying o Wages 3 Shillings per week OvenNork was 12 a penny per day Industrial Revolution Discussion Q s 3232011 85200 PM Would you rather have lived in the industrial Revolution or the ages of Feudalism Cite specific examples to support your opinion Eric If you were the parent of a child during the industrial revolution would you have your kids work even though you were aware of the poor work conditions and treatment Eric Why were uniform machine parts an important aspect of the industrial revolution Hilary Devon Maya Andrew What were the benefits of child labor in the industrial revolution Hilary Devon Maya Andrew Why did Britain prosper more than India from the transfer of technology Hilary Devon Maya And rew Will the divide of the Bourgeois and Proletarians continue through history Hilary Devon Maya Andrew Why did it take Russia longer and what challenges did they face when creating an industrial revolution Hilary Devon Maya Andrew What if communism was the dominate standard and capitalism was a minority prevalent only in countries like Cuba Ben L Did the parents of the children who worked in the factories know about the abuse and if they did why didn t reforms occur earlier Ben K What are the causes of the once great Indian civilization economic downfall Ben K Colonial Empires 3232011 85200 PM New Justifications for Empire Social Darwinism Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin s The Origin of Species by Natural Selection 1859 o Humans have evolved through a process of selection that favors the fittest who would survive longest and breed most European scientists laymen clergy and anthropologists began debating the sources of what they perceived to be European superiority 0 Social Darwinism emerged to justify white supremacy India and the Imperial Model Britain s experience in India served as a role model After the rebellion of 1857 the British government sought to remake the colony 0 An appointed British Viceroy responsible to the British cabinet ruled the colony o The viceroy oversaw the development of a modern transportation and communication system By 1910 India had the fourth largest railroad network in the world Engineers built dams and telegraph lines India became a consumer of British manufactured goods and a supplier of raw materials such as cotton jute tea wheat and oil seeds 0 Peasants did most of the production but rarely saw the full returns of their labor Colonizing Africa Africa bore the brunt of European imperialism 0 Only Ethiopia and Liberia avoided conquest The French and British with toeholds in North and South Africa respectively moved into the interior after 1850 Other European countries soon duplicated these efforts 0 European powers the United States and the Ottoman empire met in Berlin in 1884 1885 to make sure this scramble happened in an orderly fashion 0 European partition of Africa divided ethnic tribal religious and linguistic groups Europeans were motivated out of desires for investment and trade 0 Stanley and Livingstone s explorations excited many about the continent s economic potential 0 King Leopold II chafing at being a monarch of tiny Belgium built a personal empire in the Congo Later the Belgian government took control after the human rights abuses under his regime became well known 0 Others viewed imperialism in Africa as a chance to spread Christianity Africans resisted this encroachment on their lives but resistance was largely futile o Africans were internally divided 0 European technology was superior to African weapons 0 Only Menelik ruler of Ethiopia repulsed the Europeans He modernized his army and played Europeans off each other Colonialadministrations 0 Over time Europeans created stable rationalized bureaucracies This system laid the foundations for today s nation states in Africa The goal of these administrations were to u Have the colony pay for its administration a Preserve domestic peace a Promote economic growth that would generate income for Africans and European investors Methods of Empire Indirect Rule 0 Native troops commanded by European officers 0 Use of local administratorselites Less expensive Europeans as arbitrators a British rule in India
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