Principles of Management and Organization
Principles of Management and Organization MgtOp 301
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willard Hayes on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MgtOp 301 at Washington State University taught by Kenneth Butterfield in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see /class/206031/mgtop-301-washington-state-university in Management And Operations at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
MgOpt 301 Chapter 7 Management Learning Past to Present Classical Management Approaches Scientific Administrative Principles and Bureaucratic Organization Scientific Management Taylor emphasizes careful training of workers and supervisory support 0 4 guiding action principles I Develop for every job a science that includes rules of motions standardized work implements and proper working conditions I Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job I Carefully train workers to do the job and give them the proper incentives to cooperate with the job science I Support workers by carefully planning their work and by smoothing the way as they go about their jobs 0 Motion Study science of reducing a task to its basic physical motions Administrative Principles Written by Henri Fayol outlining his views on the proper management of organizations and of the people within them identifies five quotrulesquot of management 0 5 Rules of Management I Foresight complete a plan of action for the future I Organization provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan I Command to lead select and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan I Coordination to fit diverse efforts together and to ensure information is shared and problems solved I Control to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action 0 Fayol believed management can be taught 0 quotPrinciplesquot that are still used in management vocabulary today I Scalar Chain Principle there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom in the organization I Unity of Command Principle each person should receive orders from only one boss I Unity of Direction Principle one person should be in charge of all activities that have the same performance objective Bureaucratic Organization developed by Max Weber he believed that people were in authority position not because of capabilities but because of social standing believed bureaucracy could help correct this 0 Bureaucracy rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic order and legitimate authority 0 Defining characteristics of Weber s bureaucratic organization I Clear division of labor jobs are well defined and workers become highly skilled at performing them Clear hierarchy of authority authority and responsibility are well defined for each position and each position reports to a higher level one Formal rules and procedures written guidelines direct behavior and decisions in jobs and written files are kept for historical record Impersonality rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly applied with no one receiving preferential treatment Careers based on merits workers are selected and promoted on ability competency and performance and managers are career employees of the organization Behavioral Management Approaches Hawthorne Studies initial experiment was sought to determine how economic incentives and physical conditions of the workplace affect the output of workers 0 O O O Started as seeing whether physical conditions affected output then slowly began to look at psychological factors as more prominent issues Are looked at as weak tools of research however it did cause management to start taking into account workers feelings as a measure of why output would increasedecrease Hawthorne Effect tendency of people who are singled out for special attention to perform as anticipated because of expectations created by the situation Contributed to emergence of human relations movement suggesting that managers using good human relations will achieve productivity This movement also evolved into the field of organizational behavior the study of individuals and groups in organizations Maslow s Theory of Human Needs human quotneedsquot have a major impact on management 0 O 0 Need physiological or psychological deficiency that a person wants to satisfy Needs are placed lowest to highest physiological safety social esteem and self actualization Based on two underlying principles I Deficit Principle a satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior people act to satisfy deprived needs those for which a satisfaction quotdeficitquot exists I Progression Principle the five needs exists in a hierarchy of quotprepotencyquot a need at any level is activated only when the next lower level need is satisfied People will achieve needs one level at a time it is said that without managements help in achieving these in order productivity will not be reached McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y McGregor believed that managers should give more attention to the social and self actualizing needs of people at work and to shift their views from quottheory x to quottheory y 0 Theory X assumes people dislike work lack ambition act irresponsibly and prefer to be led 0 Theory Y assumes people are willing to work like responsibility and are self directed and creative much more participative approach as a manager Believes that managers who hold either theories can create self fulfilling prophecies through their behavior they create situations where others act in ways that confirm the original expectations 0 Modern Management Foundations Contingency Thinking tries to match management practices with situational demands 0 Tries to help managers understand situational differences and respond to them in ways appropriate to their unique characteristics 0 What the best solution is will completely depend on the situation itself Chapter 8 Leading and 39 39 39 T 39 The Nature of Leadership Leadership process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks Leadership and Power leadership essentially begins with the ways a manager uses power to influence the behavior of other people 0 Power the ability to get someone else to do something you want done or to make things happen the way you want 0 Good leadership uses power for the good of the organization not self 0 Leaders gain power through position and personal qualities Position Power positions they hold 3 bases include o Reward Power capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing other people ex Incentives as in promotions bonuses special assignments I quotif you do what I want I ll reward you 0 Coercive Power capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people I quotif you don t do what I want I ll punish you 0 Legitimate Power capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority or the rights of office I quotI am the boss therefore you are supposed to do what I ask Personal Power a person s personal qualities 0 Expert Power capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge I quotYou should do what I want because of my special expertise o Referent Power capacity to influence other people because oftheir desire to identify personally with you I quotyou should do what I want in order to maintain a positive self defined relationship with mequot Leadership and Vision Great leaders get things done by using their powers exceptionally well it is frequently associated with vision 0 Vision clear sense of the future and the goals you plan to achieve o Visionary Leadership a leader who brings to the situation a clear and compelling sense of the future as well as an understanding of how to get there makes what people do seem worthwhile Leadership as Service 0 Servant Leadership follower centered and committed to helping others in their work followers are more important than the leaders 0 Empowerment enables others to gain and use decision making power servant leadership empowers employees by allowing them to make their own decisions ultimately making them feel motivated Leadership Traits and Behaviors Leadership Traits 0 Studies found that height weight and physiques make no difference on how successful a manager is however these traits do I Drive Self Confidence Creativity Cognitive Ability Job Relevant Knowledge Motivation Flexibility Honesty and Integrity Leadership Behaviors next researchers looked at what behaviors promote a successful manager by investigating leadership styles 0 Leadership Styles recurring pattern of behaviors exhibited by a leader 0 Study looked at concern for the task and concern for the workers two characteristics in good managers were clear I High in concern for the task plans and defines the work to be done assigns responsibilities sets clear work standards urges task completion and monitors performance results I High in concern for people acts warm and supportive towards followers maintains good social relations with them respects their feelings is sensitive to their needs and shows trust in them Classic Leadership Styles 0 Autocratic Style acts in a unilateral command and control fashion 0 Human Relations Style emphasizes people over task 0 Laissez Faire Style displays a quotdo the best you can and don t bother mequot attitude 0 Democratic Style emphasizes both tasks and people Contingency Approaches to Leadership Fiedler s Contingency Model Proposed that good leadership depends on a match between leadership style and situational demand 0 Understand Leadership Style measured on least preferred co worker scale LPC describes tendencies to behave either as a task motivated leader or relationship motivated leader Fiedler believes your leadership style is just who you are and can t be changed therefore you must find the best quotfitquot for your own style 0 Understanding Leadership Situations Fiedler believes the amount of control a situation allows the leader in critical issues in determining the correct style situation fit 3 variables are used to diagnose situational control I Quality of Leader Member Relations how much the group supports the leader I Task Structure measures how well tasks goals procedures are clearly defined I Position Power degree to which situation gives leader power to reward and punish subordinates 0 Matching Leadership Style and Situation styles must be used given the correct situation 2 propositions I Proposition 1 a task oriented leader will be most successful in either very favorable or very unfavorable situations Proposition 2 a relationship oriented leader will be most successful in situations of moderate control Hersey Blanchard Situational Leadership Model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles doing so based on maturity of followers possible combo of task vs relationship oriented people results in 4 leadership styles 0 Delegating allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions low task low relationship Participating emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions low task high relationship 0 Selling explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way high task high relationship 0 Telling giving specific task directions and closely supervising work high task low relationship Path Goal Leadership Theory Robert House suggests that an effective leader is one who clarifies paths by which followers can achieve both task related and personal goals best leaders help followers move along these paths by clarifying goals removing barriers and providing valued rewards for goal accomplishment 0 Believe they should shift back and forth between these 4 styles I Directive Leadership letting subordinates know what is expected giving directions on what to do and how scheduling work to be done maintain definite standards of performance clarifying the leaders role in the group Supportive Leadership doing things to make work more pleasant treating group members as equals being friendly and approachable showing concern for the well being of subordinates Achievement Oriented Leadership setting challenging goals expecting the highest levels of performance emphasizing continuous improvement in performance displaying confidence in meeting high standards Participative Leadership involving subordinates in decision making consulting with subordinates asking for suggestions from subordinates using these suggesting when make a decision 0 Path Goal Contingencies Advises managers to use leadership styles that fit situational needs ex Employees that are strong in their tasks and knowledge don t need to be told what to do it s a waste 0 o Substitutes for Leadership aspects of the work settings and the people involved that can reduce the needs for a leader s personal involvement I Make leadership from the quotoutsidequot unnecessary because it s all available within I Substitutes include o subordinate characteristics such as ability experience and independence task characteristics such as routineness and availability of feedback organization characteristics such as clarity of plans and formalizations of rules and procedures Leader Member Exchange Theory Some people are treated differently by leaders and this can lead to an influence on your experience 0 Those within the quotin group are often considered the best performers and have high relationships with the leaders 0 Premise is that as a leader and a follower interact over time their exchanges end up defining the follower s role it is motivating and satisfying to be on the inside of things Leader Participation Model Vroom Jago leadership success results when the decision making method used by a leader best fits the problem being faced o Leader s choices fall into three categories I Authority Decision made by the leader then communicated to the group I Consultative Decision made by a leader after receiving information advice or opinions from group members I Group Decision made by group members themselves 0 Leader s choice among the decision making methods is governed by three rules I Decision Quality based on who has the info needed for problem solving I Decision Acceptance based on importance of follower acceptance ofthe decision to its eventual implementation I Decision Time based on the time available to make and implement the decision 0 Leaders personally have the expertise needed to solve the problem then people tend to accept the decision more quickly without discussion Issues in Leadership Development Charismatic Leaders develops special leader follower relationships and inspires followers in extraordinary ways Transformational Leadership James Burns and Bernard Bass suggest that the research and models discussed tend toward transactional leadership 0 Transactional Leadership uses tasks rewards and structures to influence and direct the efforts of others Transformational Leadership inspires and arouses extraordinary effort and performance truly inspiring as a leader One must not just know these tools but be prepared to use them to lead 0 O o Tend to have qualities such as vision charisma symbolism empowerment intellectual stimulation integrity Emotional Intelligence and Leadership 0 Emotional Intelligence ability to manage our emotions in social relationships 0 People with high EI have strong self awareness of moods and feelings and how they affect their performance 0 Also have strong self management or the ability to think before we act and control disruptive impulses o Leaders with high EI recognize emotions and have the ability to respond to them correctly with empathy Moral Leadership always good and quotrightquot by ethical standards expectation is that anyone in a leadership position will practice this 0 Integrity honesty credibility and consistency in putting values into actions these leaders earn the trust of followers and when followers believe leaders are trustworthy they try to behave in ways that live up to the leader s expectations 0 Authentic Leadership advanced by Fred Luthans and Bruce Avolio an authentic leader has a high level of self awareness and clearly understands his or her personal values also acts consistently with these values being honest and avoiding self deceptions Chapter 9 Motivation Theory and Practice Individual Needs and Motivation Motivation accounts for the level direction and persistence or effort expended at work Needs an unfulfilled physiological or psychological desire Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslow s Theory of Needs 0 Lower order needs physiological safety social concerns 0 Higher order needs esteem self actualization 0 Two principles to describe these needs I Deficit Principle a satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior people are expected to act in ways that satisfy deprived needs I Progression Principle a need at one level does not become activated until the next lower level need is already satisfied people are expected to advance step by step up the levels Erg Theory Clayton Alderfer collapses Maslow s Theory into three categories rather than five 0 Three categories I Existence Needs desires for physiological and material well being I Relatedness Needs desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships I Growth Needs desires for continued psychological growth and development 0 Doesn t assume that one need must be satisfied before the next 0 Doesn t believe that satisfied needs lose their motivational impact