IND&FAM LIFE SP DEV
IND&FAM LIFE SP DEV FAD 3220
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alysson Goyette on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FAD 3220 at Florida State University taught by Nari Berarducci in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/206034/fad-3220-florida-state-university in Economic Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Mar 13 Chapter 11 Physical amp Cognitive Development in Adolescence Adolescence time between childhood amp adulthood with major physical cognitive amp psychosocial changes 0 Ages 11 through 19 or 20 Puberty process by which person attains sexual maturity amp the ability to reproduce Physical Development Onset of puberty also dependent on a critical amount of body fat percentage Heightened emotionality amp moodiness in early adolescents may be a result of hormonal developments Signs of Puberty Primary sex characteristics organs necessary for reproduction Secondary sex characteristics physiological signs of maturity that do not involve the sex organs Sequence is more consistent than the timing Puberty Adolescent growth spurt rapid increase in height weight muscle amp bone 0 Typically lasts about two years 0 Usually happens two years earlier for girls than boys girls 11 to 13 are usually stronger taller amp heavier than boys the same age 0 Fat accumulate twice as rapidly in girls than in boys Signs of Sexual Maturity Spermarche boy s first ejaculation 0 Average age of 13 Menarche girl s first menstruation o Vary from ages 10 to 16 Secular trend trend that can be seen only by observing several generations 0 Decreased age in puberty increased height and weight 0 Nutrition economics healthcare family relationships exercise etc Adolescent Brain Brain still maturing during adolescence Use of differing brain regions emotionalinstinctual regions vs reasoning and judgment regions may account for poor choices with adolescents o Thrillseeking impulsiveness 0 Peer pressure Health Physical activity activity decreases throughout highschool years 0 Main culprit for obesity in adolescence Sleep deprivation 0 Poor sleep patterns going to sleep late and oversleeping can contribute to insomnia Melatonin is secreted later at night during adolescence Needjust as much sleep or more than middle childhood children because of rapid growth and development 00 Nutrition Compared to teens in other industrialized countries 0 US teens are eating less healthy food amp more unhealthy food 0 US teens are two times more likely to be overweight 34 of US teens have a BMI at or above 85th percentile 18 of US teens have a BMI at or above 95th percentile Cognitive Development Piaget formal operations 0 Ability to think abstractly 0 Usually begins around 11 Hypothetical deductive reasoning ability to develop consider and test hypotheses Information Processing Structural changes 0 Changes in working memory capacity 0 The increasing amount of knowledge stored in longterm memory Declarative quotknowing that Procedural quotknowing how to Conceptual quotknowing why Functional changes 0 Increase in processing speed o Furthering execution function Moral Reasoning Kohlberg Levels of morality Preconventional people act under external controls ages four to 10 Conventional people have internalized standards of authority figures after age 10 Postconventional morality recognize conflicts between moral standards and make their own judgments adolescents or young adulthood Prosocial BehaviorVolunteering lncreases through adolescence Girls show more prosocialbehvior than boys Parents of girls emphasize social responsibility more than with boys Girls volunteer more than boys in community service Influence on School Achievement Selfmotivation selfefficacy selfdiscipline Higher SES Parents with education Parents with high occupational status Gender Parenting style Peer influence The school Mar 15 Adolescent Social Development Sexuality 0 Sexual ldentity Makeup Sex male female Gender masculine feminine Sexual orientation homosexual heterosexual 0 Sexual orientation Stages of homosexual identity development Heterosexuals do not go through identity confusion u Sensitization 0 Identity confusion 0 Identity assumption 0 Identity commitment 0 Sexual identity What is it 0 Research Blacksamp Hispanics more likely to be sexually active Relationships Family 0 Stays important Peer 0 Becomes as important as family or a little more important Mar 20 Chapter 12 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence ldentity a coherent conception of the self made up of goals values amp beliefs to which a person is solidly committed ldentity vs role confusion o Erikson s 5th stage of psychosocial development 0 Three major issues occupation values amp sexual identity ldentity Status Marcia ldentity statuses status of ego development at a particular time o Diffusion no sense of personal choices neither crisis nor commitment Moratorium Crisis period of conscious decision making related to identity formation Achievement commitment to choices following a crisis Foreclosure person has not spent time considering alternatives to others plans for hisher life Gender Differences in ldentity Formation Female sense of self develops through establishing relationships Male sense of self develops more so through developing a separate identity Influences on Sexual Risk Taking Fearlack of fear of STDs amp pregnancy Puberty Poverty Poor school performance Lack of life goals Sexual abuseparental neglect O OO Parental closeness Moralsreligious values Adolescent Relationships Adolescent rebelliona myth or not 0 Only one in five teenagers fit this pattern Most adolescents feel close to amp positive about their parents share similar opinions on major issues amp value their parents approval Emotionality tends to be less stable during early adolescence amp then level out Adolescents amp Parents Spend less time with family amp more time alone in their room Tension between dependency amp independence Struggle for individuation autonomy amp personal identity Arguments over everyday personal matters rather than larger issues of safety amp right amp wrong Authoritative parenting is ideal o Balancing warmth amp closeness with rules structures amp guidelines Parental monitoring amp selfdisclosure Adolescents amp Siblings Less close to siblings than to either parents or friends Less influenced by siblings Relationships become more equal as younger siblings approach adolescence amp high school Adolescents amp Peers As children move into adolescence the peer social system becomes more elaborate amp diverse Cliques structured groups of friends who do things together Crowds based on reputation image or identity 0 Popular jocks preppies snobs band kids smart kids etc More risktaking in presence of peers FAD3220 Individual and Family LifeSpan Development March 22 2012 Friendships High intensity and high frequency 0 Adolescents more than elementary school kids spend more time on the phone and chatting with deep intensity in relationships Transition towards adultlike friendships greater intimacy loyalty and sharing Confiding in friends leads to greater intimacy Feel close to friends who are like them Romantic Relationships Sexual issues emerge with romantic partners Breakups with romantic partners are predictors of depression and suicide lnvolve passion and a sense of commitment By age 16 adolescents interact with and think about romantic partners more than parents friends or siblings Antisocial Behavior Influenced by 0 Genetics 0 Parentchild relationships 0 Parenting practices 0 Community influences and social support 0 Family economics Reduced by 0 Early intervention Recognizing kids that are at risk for antisocial or criminal behaviors 0 Programs with good monitoring behavioral management and neighborhood social support Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood Adulthood What are the markers for adulthood 0 Sexual Maturity Old enough to reproduce sex organs have matured past childhood 0 Legal adulthood Buy tobacco and alcohol vote marry enter into contracts etc o Psychological maturity What does it mean to be an adult Emerging Adulthood Age of late teens to midtolate twenties Three criteria 0 Accepting responsibility for oneself 0 Making independent decisions 0 Becoming financially independent Physical Development Health 0 Most say they are in good health 0 Accidents are the leading cause of death 0 Overweight and too little exercise 0 Highest poverty and lowest level of health insurance of any age group Behavior and Health Cholesterol fat and heart disease Cancers o Soybased food for women linked to decreases in breast cancer 0 Fish for me linked to decreases in colorectal cancer Obesity linked to lifestyle behaviors rather than knowledge Other Health Issues Exercise Sleep Smoking 0 This age group most likely to smoke than any other Alcohol use 0 Peaks in emerging adulthood o Binge drinking drinking and driving HIV infection drug use Relationships and Health Social relationships vital to health and wellbeing 0 Social integration active engagement in a broad range of social relationships activities and roles 0 Social support material informational and psychological resources derived from the social network which a person can rely on for help in coping with stress Marriage and Health Marriage has health benefits especially for men Married people especially in young adulthood tender to be healthier than those who are single divorced never married widowed etc Married people especially husbands are more likely to be obese Mental Health Some mental health disorders have a genetic component which is quotsignaledquot to occur in early adulthood o Called a quotpsychotic break Stressors of being out on one s own and making own decisions can influence mental health problems 0 Alcoholism drug use and abuse 0 Depression Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes Less adults are waiting to have sex until married 75 have had sex by age 20 Compared to older age groups emerging adults 0 Tend to have more sexual partners 0 Have sex less frequently 0 Have more casual sex Young Adult Development 327 Cognitive Development reflective thinking logical thinking involving continuousactive evaluation of information and beliefs in the light of evidence and implications emerges between 20 and 26 not all adults reach the skill to apply this thinking to all types of problems but most adults develop the capacity for it post formal thought mature level of thinking that relies on subjective experience and intuition as well as logic useful in dealing with ambiguity uncertainty inconsistency contradiction imperfection and compromise people can take a situation and not think in black and white and come up with an idea sees shades of gray vs black and white useful when emotions are involved Emotional intelligence the ability to perceive use understand and regulate emotions an important component of effective intelligent behavior measure by use of the test MSCEIT MayerSalovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Moral reasoning women think less about abstractjustice and fairness than men do and more about their responsibilities to specific people C Gllligan other researchers found no greater differences may do things or have friends that may do things that go against there morals young adults able to lie with morel contradictions College entering college finishing college only 25 to 50 are finishing in five years some remain longer or switch from 2 to 4 year institutions longterm earning potential fourfold increase with college degree than highschool diploma Ch 14 329 Psychosocial Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood Paths to Adulthood Before 1960 s Finish school leave home get a job get married have children Currently only 1 in 4 follow this path Time of experimentation on what one wants to do Influenced by gender academic ability expectations attitudes and social class Identity Development Recentering process that underlies the shift to an adult identity Stage 1 individual still embedded in family of origin but increased expectations of selfreliance and selfdirection Stage 2 connected by not embedded with family or origin may be financially dependent College jobs intimate partners may be exploited Stage 3 usually by age 30 independence from family of origin commitment to career partner and possibly children Personality Development lntimacy vs lsolation Erickson s 6th stage of psychosocial development Young adults must make commitments to others or face a possible sense of isolation or selfabsorption Timing of Events Model Describes adult psychosocial development as a response to the expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of important life events Normative life events Social clock society s normsexpectations for the appropriate timing of life events Typological Models dentifies broad personality types or styles Three types Ego resilient well adjusted selfconfident articulate Overcontrolled shy quiet anxious dependable Undercontroled active energetic impulsive stubborn distracted Friendship and Love Friendships may be less stable because of relocation Friendships centered on work parenting sharing of confidence and advice Sternberg s Triangular Theory of Love Passion Commitment and Intimacy Relationships and Health Being Single Voluntary temporary rather be doing other things will get married Voluntary stable chooses to be single nuns lnvoluntary temporary looking for someone lnvoluntary stable Cohabitation Singles living together Only about 7 of population Unmarried couples tend to be less homogamous than marrieds More likely to be interracial Short term Much more likely to break up than marrieds Mostly 3040 after divorce Marriage Dating HomogamyHeterogamy First marriage is homogamous and 2nd marriage tends to be heterogamous since it didn t work out Marital Stability how long it lasts Marital Satisfaction Marriage and Parenting Marital satisfaction decreases during childrearing years Stress Adjusting to new role Feeing isolated Division of household labor September 1st 2011 FAD 3220 Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development Theory and Research 0 Human Development the study of patterns and change and stability in human growth through the life 0 Characteristics issystematic organized 0 Adaptive is intemal and external conditions 0 Life span development life long process 0 Domains of Development 0 Physical development can and cant see the development 0 Cognitive development the things going on in the brain Learning attention span processing 0 Psychosocial development psycho intema1social environments dealing with more than one person Development of other peopleie social skills and personalities o Periods of the Life Span are called Social Constructions I Childhood I Adolescence I Adulthood 0 When are you an adult 18 or 21 0 Smoke cigarette Buy alcohol Fight in war Vote Get married Get health insurance 0 In uences on Development 0 Heredity the things you genetically inherit from your parents I DNA chromosomes and genes 0 Environment who your family is the school you went the community you live in etc o Maturation changing over time I Hardest part for kids is changing into adolescence o Normative I Normative age graded in uences developments that happen through out the life span normally 0 Ex 12 year molars Normative history graded in uences the time period your in 0 Ex September 11th I Non normative history graded in uences developments that happen through out the life span UNnormally o Affects the individual like a unique circumstance 0 Ex having a disability disease trauma 0 Context of Development 0 Context your environment philosophies or institutions 0 Family 0 Socioeconomic status SES 0 Gender Roles o Cultureis yourethnicity language religion geographic location 0 Issue 1 o Is development active or reactive I Reactive view John Locke tabula mm a blank slate on which society writes o Mechanistic model people are like machines that react to environmental input I Active View Jean Jacques Rousseau noble savages who develop according to their own tendencies o Organism model people are active growing organism that set their own development in motion Visual example Tumbling 6 year old is it Heredity Yes always Is it Environment Yes always Active development Could be Reactive development Could be 0 Issue 2 o Is development continuous or noncontinuous I Continuous gradual incremental o Qualitative change numbers or amount you can measure it I Discontinuous abrupt uneven o Qualitative change kind structure organization 0 Difficult to assess Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspective on Human Development 0 Psychoanalytic Psychosexual o Sigmund Freud says that unconscious forces that motivate human I The forces are 0 Sex Life 0 Pertains to our gender role and behaviors o Aggression Death 0 The opposite of sex I Parts ofpersonality 0 Id pleasure principle 0 First part of needs 0 Example a baby can t comprehend anything else but to understand that it feels good to eat and if they don t get fed they cry 0 Ego reality 0 What you want to do and what you want do 0 Example get up or snooze the alarm late for school and continue sleeping in o Superego morality principle 0 Take things more literally 0 Example shouldn t drive and drive kids sees you drink a soda and driving Take things more literally I Psychosexual stage 0 Oral birth to 1218 months 0 ISI stage 0 Sucking eating and speaking this is how there needs are met 0 Anal 1218 months to 3 years 0 2quotd stage 0 Children development pride or shame and how they can control it o Phallic 36 years old 0 Gender role is developing 0 They are more preoccupied with their parents in many ways I Oedipus concept Young boys become more in love with their mothers than their fathers Electro concept young female become more in love with their father than their mother 0 Latency 6 years to puberty o Genital puberty through adulthood 0 Developing of our personality and perusing relationships 0 Erik Erikson 0 Society has a huge in uence of developing personalities I Covers 8 stages across the lifespan o The stages balances positive tendency with negative ones 0 Crisis that needs to be resolved I 8 stages chart in the book Learning 0 Long lasting change in behavior that is based on experience or adaptation to the environment 0 It is continuous and quantitative It is not in stages and it can be measured Behaviorism I 1 Classical Conditioning 0 Ivan Pavlov stimulus anal response 0 He did an experiment with dogs that when they are about to be fed they would salivate I Ring a bell bring dog food and mouth would salivate They learned they when they heard bell they knew they were getting food and their mouth would salivate with or without showing the food 0 This is called an unconditioned response I 2 Operant Conditioning 0 BF Skinner Reinforcement anal punishment 0 Tested with pigeons with birdseeds Every time they pecked they would get fed birdseeds If you didn t give them bird seed they would peck for sometimes and they would realize nothing was coming and lost interest in it He realized the strongest reinforcement behavior is by when the birds where much more interested in continuously pecking when they didn t know the birdseed was always coming or never coming 3 Social Learning Theory 0 Albert Bandura reciprocal determinism which is the person that acts on the world as the world acts on the person 0 Observation learning and modeling 0 Cultural view of what is valued 4 Cognitive 0 Jean Piaget children develop as an effort to understand and act on their world 0 Organization creating categories 0 Adaptation o Assimilation adjusting the information 0 Accommodation adjusting ones cognitive structures 0 Equilibration balance 5 Cognitive Sociocultural o Lev Vygotsky helps children learn through social interaction helps support children through hat is just beyond their reach 0 Zone of proximal development the gap between what children can do on their own and what they are not ready to accomplish by themselves 6 Contextual o UrieBrongenbrenner biological theory 0 Development is only understand in social contexts microsystem directly involved in developing individual home school work Mesosystem links between parts of microsystem Exosystem links between micro outside system media government Macrosystem overarching cultural patterns Chronosystem dimension of time 00 OO Evolutionary sociobiological O O 0 E0 Wilson Based on Darwin adaptive behaviors of a species will lead to survival of the ttest People unconsciously strive not only for personal survival but to perpetuate their genetic legacy Chapter 3 o Evolutionary perspective 0 Natural selection the best adapted and strongest surviv I Origin of species by Charles Darwin 0 Adoptive behavior behavior that promotes survival in an environment 0 Evolutionary psychology 0 Genetic foundations o Chromosomes I 23 pairs 46 total I Made up of DNA double helix shape 0 Genes units of heredity information I Short segments of DNA 0 Cells I All cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes except sperms and eggs I Reproduce through mitosis I Chromosome duplicate and the cell divides once forming 2 cells with 23 paired chromosomes 0 Sex cells I Reproduce through meiosis I Sperm and eggs duplicate its chromosomesbut divides twice forming 4 cells I Each cell has only 23 unpaired chromosomes 0 Fertilization I Also known as conception I A stage in reproduction where an egg and sperm fuse to create a sin le cell called a zygote I 23r unpaired chromosome determines sex of offspring s 0 xx for female ovum 0 xy for male gametes o Variability I Even when genes are identical people carry 0 Genotype all of the genetic material or code 0 Phenotype physical expression or observable characteristics 0 Can be based on environmental factors 0 Genetic Principles 0 Dominant recessive cells 0 Recessive gene in uential only if paired with another recessive o Sexlinked genes 0 Most mutated genes are recessive 0 When a mutated gene is carried on the c chromosome the result is called xlinked inheritance o This affects males most because they only have one x chromosome 0 Polygenetic inheritance 0 Most characteristics are determined by an interaction of genes not just one single gene 0 In uence of environment as well 0 Genegene interaction Prenatal Diagnostic tests 0 Ultrasound sonographer 3D4D 0 Fetal MRI more detailed images than ultra sound 0 Chorionic villus samples small sample of placenta risk of limb Deformity o Amniocentesis amniotic Reproductive techniques 0 In virto fertilization I Sperm and egg combined in lab dish I Success rate depends on mothers age I Risk multiple births low birth weight Heredity the science of genetics 0 The inborn factors inherited from ones biological that affect development 0 The study of heredity and environment is quantitative It seeks to measure how much heredity and environment in uence particular traits This is the traditional goal of science of behavioral genetics Heritability is a statistical estimate of the contribution heredity makes toward individual differences in complex traits within a given population 0 Because hereditability cannot be measured directly researcher in behavioral genetics rely chie y on three type of correlational research family adoption and twin studies I Family biological relatives share certain traits and whether the closeness of the familial relationship is associated with the degree of similarity Adoption similarities between adopted children and there adopted families and also between the adopted children and there biological families I Twins compare pairs of monozygotic twins with the same sex dizygotic twins 0 The reaction range refers to a range of potential expressions of a hereditary trait Prenatal development 0 Gestation 38 week period of development between conception and birth I Gestation age is dated from the first day of an expectant mothers last menstrual cycle 0 3 stages to prenatal development I l Germinal fertilization to 2 weeks 0 the zygote divides and come more complese and is implanted in the wall of the uterus I 2 Embryonic 28 weeks 0 the organs and major body systems develop 0 critical period I 3 Fetal 8 weeksbirth o the first bone cell o the fetus grows quickly to about 20 times its precious length and organs and boys system become more complex 0 Behavior genetics 0 Twin study I Identical twins 0 Exact same DNA I Fraternal twins 0 Adoption study I Biological parents I Adoptive parents 0 Environmental experiences 0 Shared environmental experience siblings common experiences I Parents personalities neighborhood and family resourses o Nonshared environmental experiences I Unique to each child Chapter 4 Birth and physical development during the 1st three years 0 Children grow in the first three years in their life than any other time 0 Stages of birth 0 Stage 1 cervix dilates uterine contractions 0 Stage 2 birth of anewbom 0 Stage 3 after birth placenta umbilical cord and other membrane are expelled Medication o Analgesics used to relieve pain Demerol o Anesthesia block sensation or block consciousness I Epidural block 0 Oxytocin stimulate contractions o Risks of all ofthese drugs debated Methods of birth 0 Natural childbirth breathing and relaxation 0 Prepared childbirth special breathing technique detailed education about anatomy and physiology 0 Cesarean surgical delivery Newborn to fetus o Anoxia insufficient oxygen that can eventually lead to brain damage 0 Stress increases hormone levels adrenaline to increase heart activity blood ow to brain and blood sugar level 0 Vemixcaseosa fatty grease on the baby that protects form heat loss before and during birth Apgar Scale 0 When babies are out of the whom doctors use this to assess them 0 Scores of 0 not presentl2present on each scale I Heart rate I Respiratory effort I Muscle tone I Body color I Re ex irritability 0 Scores of 710 good 0 Score of 5 developmental difficulties 0 Score of 3 or below emergency Early re exes o Moro parachuting o Darwinian grasping o Babinski toes fan foot twist o Rooting o Sucking 0 Walking stepping when suspended 0 Swimming I All of these last from birth to 4 months old Infant size 0 Low birth weight weigh less than 55 lbs at birth I Very low less than 35 lbs I Extremely low less than 2 lbs 0 Preterm born 3 weeks or more before full term pregnancy before 37 weeks 0 Small for date birth wright is blew normal when length of pregnancy is considered Increases in preterm infants 0 Due to I Increasing number of births to women age 35 and older I Increasing tare of multiple births I Increasing maternal and fetal monitoring I Increased substance abuse I Increased stress 0 Possible solutions progestin and folic acid Consequences of preterm birth and low birth weight 0 Research results 0 Likely to drop out of school 0 Delays in early language development 0 Low IQ scores 0 Risk increase with earlier birth and lower birth weight Nurturing Preterm infants 0 Reduce low birth weight before it occurs I Educational social support services 0 Interventions I Breast feeding highly encouraged I Kangaroo care skin to skin contact between infant and mother to stabilize infants heartbeat temperature and breathing Postpartum Physical Adjustments Fatigue Loss of sleep up to 700 hours in lst year Changes in hormone production Changes in menstrual cycle more delayed if women breastfeed but ovulation usually still occurs 0 Involution uterus returns to prepregnant size 4 to 6 weeks after birth 0 Patterns of growth 0 o Postpartum emotional psychological adjustments 0 Emotional uctuations 0 Baby blues depressed anxious upset o Postpartum depression major depressive episode that occurs about 4 weeks after delivery I Treatment some medication therapy exercise support I Can affect baby mother is less interactive 0 Father have to adjust too 0 Changing of marital roles 0 Martial roles change drastically after birth of the lSt child 0 Roles were equal before birth become more gendered after birth 0 Need to renegotiate role around I Housework I Paid labor I Finances I Spending time together 0000 Chapter 5 Brain and Cognitive Development lSt three years 0 Central nervous system 0 Spinal cord and the brain is still developing I The brain stem is the basic body function things you cant control or see I Cerebellum is the balance and motor skills I Cerebrum cognitive functions 0 Left hemisphere is the language logical thinking 0 Right hemisphere is the visual and spatial functions I Corpus colleso I Lateralization 0 Brain cells 0 Neurons send and receive information I Axons send signals I Dendrites receive incoming messages I Synapses gaps between axons and neurons I Neurotransmitters chemical that carry messages 0 Glial nourish and protects neurons 0 Myelin fatty substances that coat neural pathways 0 Ex Computer wire 0 Early sense 0 Touchpain most mature in newborns fastest developed Smelltaste preferencesdevelop early prefer sweet to sour bitter or salty Hearing functional before birth and develops rapidly Sight least developed at birth nerves and structures need to develop more I 20400 at birth 2020 by 8 months slowest developed 0 Cognitive Development 0 Piagets views children develop skills in attempts to solve problems I Sensorimotor stage birth to 2 years 0 Learn about themselves and their world through sensor and motor activity Baby s schemes organized thoughts and behaviors become more elaborate Circular reactions learn to reproduce pleasurable event discovered by chance 000 O O I Imitation 0 Invisible using parts of the body that a baby cannot see 0 EX smiling Visible using parts of the body the baby can see Deferred is imitating after a period of time by stored symbol of it 0 Deals more with the amount of time that takes place from when they saw the behavior I Ex peekaboo Elicited imitate series of things they have seen but not before 0 Deals more with a series of something that they have never done before I Ex setting atable Object permanence object exists when out of sight 0 Ex bear is a symbol but everyone has there own image of a bear in there head 0 Ex rattle disappear 7 NOT object permanence 0 Ex peekaboo with toys IS object permanence The A not B error put a coin in your right hand then show the baby that you switched hands and they still look for the coin in the right hand Pictorial competence picture can represent an object Information Processing 0 Habituation type of learning when repeated or continuous exposure to a stimulus reduced attention to that stimulus o Dishabituation increase in interest to a new stimulus Infant Memory 0 Infantile amnesia not remembering from when you were younger than 2 0 Brain and language development not developed enough to store long term Types of Memory 0 Implicit unconscious memory habits and skills o Explicit conscious memory facts names events 0 Working short term memory being actively processed Language Development 0 Pre linguistic speech crying cooging babbling and accidental or deliberate imitation of sounds Gestures as communication 0 Conventional social waving nodding Representational using gesture similar to behavior or motion Symbolic representation Babies wont learn communication properly if you teach them through gestures First words and sentences 0 Holophrase word that conveys a complete thought 0 Linguistic speech verbal expression that convey a meaning 0 Telegraphic speech early form of sentence using only a few words 0 Syntax rules for forming sentences Early characteristics of Speech 0 Simplify 0 Understand grammatics relationships that they cant express Over extend word meaning 0 Ex They may learn their dad is a dad and then call every man a dad Under extend word meaning 0 Ex a child see a dog in real life and call it a dog and then they see a cartoon ofa dog and call it a animal Over regularize rules 0 Ex I kicked and then I goed instead of I went 0 Ex I raned to the story Promoting language development 0 Scaffolding 0 Child directed speech I Talk in baby voice use simple words but don t baby it down completely 0 Reading dialogic reading 0 Language and social skills Chapter 6 Psychosocial devilment during the first three years 0 Emotionsis the subjective reaction to experience that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes 0 First sign of emotions as baby I Smiling c00ing reaching out etc I Hungry angry pain and frustration cry I Smiling involuntary and voluntary 0 When do emotions appear 0 Self conscious emotions arise only after children have developedself awareness they have a sense that self is different form the rest of their world 0 0 OOO I They can start to feel embarrassment empathy and envy I 1524 months 0 Selfevaluative emotions arise when child acquires knowledge ab out rules goals standard and can evaluate their own thoughts and behavior against them I Pride guilt and shame I Around 3 years old 0 Temperament o A persons characteristics biologically based way of approaching and reacting to people and situations I The quothowquot ofbehavior or the emotion of getting something done I Relatively consistent and enduring I Thought to be basic biological makeup 0 New york longitudinal study 0 Following 133 infants to adulthood I Easy 40 generally happy rhythmic accepting of new experiences Difficult 10 more irritable and harder to please irregular in rhythms more intense in expressing emotions I Slowtowarm up 15 mild but slow to adapt to new people and situations I 35 didn t fit into any of these categories 0 The point of this is to recognize that you can t expect that your children will be the same with each child You can t have the same patterns and such 0 Goodness of fit the match between a child s temperament and the environmental demands and constraints the child must deal with 0 Gender differences in babies 0 Gender what is means to be male or female 0 Boys tend to play more actively and aggressively than girls 0 Children tend to say more words related to their own tractor versus ill o How parents shape gender 0 Gendertyping the process by which children learn behavior that their culture considers appropriate for each sex 0 Fathers talk more to their sons mothers talk more to their daughters 0 Erikson Developing trust 0 Trust vs mistrust I Erikson 1st stage in psychosocial development I Infants develop a sense of reliability ofpeople and objects I Trust needed to form intimaterelationships 0 Ex the Visual Cliff 0 When something doesn t look clear they wont trust to crawl on
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