FAM RELSHP LIFE DEV
FAM RELSHP LIFE DEV FAD 2230
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alysson Goyette on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FAD 2230 at Florida State University taught by Kristen Greene in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/206033/fad-2230-florida-state-university in Economic Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
FAD2230 Februaryl3 2012 o v What is happening to marriage today 0 Same sex marriage I Civil Union A public policy designed to extend some benefits to partners who are not legally married I Over 1400 documented legal rights with marriage I Is legally recognized first by Massachusetts in 2004 I Benefits of Marriage versus Civil Union 0 Civil union is only recognized with states that recognize that unlike your regular heterosexual marriage 0 Gifts and property transfer is unlimited among a man and woman If you are not legally married though you have gift taxes every year 0 Married filing jointly benefits you when one spouse makes way more than the other tax wise Civil Unions can only file jointly under state taxes and can be penalized 0 Criminal penalties on abandoning a child or spouse in a regular marriage In a civil union it is not always easy to do 0 Medical decisions are allowed to be made among immediate family members so civil unions can have their right revoked in a state that doesn t recognize civil unions 0 Changing Attitudes about Marriage I Attitudes about nonmarital sex 0 More tolerant and accepting I Attitudes about Cohabitation o More tolerant I Attitudes about Nonmarital Childbearing o More common and accepted 0 Increases are pretty dramatic I Attitudes about Shared Breadwinning o More women and mothers in work force and much more acceptance with the idea of a woman having a big career and also caring for young children I Attitudes about the Division of Household Labor 0 We do see that they are changing a little Women do the vast majority of domestic chores Weekly hours men spend on household chores has increased 39239 The Marriage Premium Happiness Health and Economic Security 0 Marriage Premium The concept that married people are happier healthier and financially better off than those who are not married 0 Selection Effect The hypothesis that people who marry may be different from those who do not marry for example they may be happier healthier and have more money FAD2230 February 6 2012 o v 5Stage Model of the Listening Process 0 Good listening is a collection of skills and occurs in a circular fashion 0 Receiving I Hearing and attending 0 Understanding I Learning and deciphering meaning 0 Remembering I Recalling and retaining o Valuating I Judging and criticizing o Responding I Answering and giving feedback 39239 Types of Communication 0 Nonverbal Communication What exactly does that smile mean I Nonverbal Communication Communicating without words by using gestures expressions and body language 0 Having conversation with someone that has a blank face shows you that they aren t really listening or caring about what you are saying 0 Hand Gestures in Different Cultures I Interpreted differently by different cultures 0 Ok sign can be ok a rude gesture or a way of asking for coins depends on where you are 0 Same thing for eye contact 0 Electronic Communication I Becoming increasingly common I nformality is the new norm this is an understatement 0 Writing assignments and reports seem to have way more informality due to texting No punctuation or shorthand and abbreviations I Our writing influences our speech 0 We send things through text or email things that we wouldn t say in person 0 Many relationships are ending through text I We have volume control over our messages 0 Increases conflict avoidance I We have more relationships with less depth 0 How many Facebook friends do you have I We can live in the moment 39239 Sex Differences in Communication 0 Women are more likely to use conversation to establish relationships 0 Men use activities to build a relationship I If they use communication it is only to exchange information with you 0 Women smile more often in conversation and express a wider range of emotions and facial expressions including nonverbal behavior 0 Women use their bodies differently as well I Men take up a lot of space but women try to look smaller and take up less space to show she is listening 0 Men s communication is usually more direct and to the point I More instrumental and meant to convey a point 0 Why women and men communicate differently I Mostly due to socialization I Brain studies have shown that women use both hemispheres but men only use the left hemisphere when communicating I Men are more get to the point and women treat it as a relationship builder I Women use weak expletives like lloh dearquot or lloh my and color detail I The man is more likely to interrupt but a woman is more likely to pause and wait to interject o Interrupting is not an intentionally rude move I Women ask more questions while men make more statements I Women are more likely to use disclaimers and qualifiers like llDon t get madquot or llI m not an expert butquot 39239 Communicating to keep Your Relationships Strong Self Disclosure o SelfDisclosure Telling a person something private about yourself that he or she would not otherwise know I Maintains the relationship and serves to build the relationship I Doesn t have to be a ground breaking confession 0 Windows on Myself Jiharee Window I Open Know selfand others I Blind Blind to self but seen by others I Hidden Open to self but hidden from others I Unknown Unknown to selfand others 0 Make sure person is comfortable hearing your disclosure if you are ready to share 39239 Conflict Communication and Problem Solving 0 Conflict Disagreements over decision making problem solving or achieving goals which can result from differences between group members iin personality perception information tolerance for riskand power or influence I You will base situations on conflicts Some fear it but it is can serve to actually strengthen a relationship I Not easily avoided will pop up in another way if you keep pushing it under the rug 0 Types of Conflict I Pseudo Conflict Falser perceiving that our partner is interfering with our goals or has incompatible goal I Content Conflict A type of conflict where individuals disagree about information I Value Conflict A type of conflict that results from differing opinions on subjects that relate to personal values and issues of right or wrong 0 Perpetual problem I Ego Conflict A type of conflict where individuals believe they must win at all costs to save life 0 Hardest to solve 0 Conflict styles I Avoiding remove ourselves from conflict physically and psychologically o Loselose I Accommodating A strategy that entails satisfying your partners needs at the expense of your own 0 Losewin I Competing Opposite of accommodating Try to reach you goal regardless of what you partner says 0 Winlose I Compromising Both partner give up things for partial satisfaction 0 Loselose I Collaborating Attempt to satisfy both of your needs and work on a solution that makes everybody happy 0 Winwin o Intimacy Communication and conflict I Regulating Couples Couples who use communication to promote closeness and intimacy 0 Conflict is noncharacter attacking I Nonregulated Couples Couples who have many negative communication exchanges o Prolongs conflict Fad2230 January 9 2012 0 Families Are Always Changing 0 Residence Patterns I Neolocal The expectation that a newly married couple establishes a residence and lives there independently Patrilocal The expectation that anewly married couple will live with the husband s family I Matrilocal The expectation that a newly married couple will live with the wife s family 0 We are traditionally expected to move out after marriage Some couples can t afford it right away and stay with their parent s house I When her sister got married they moved to Baton Rouge but he got into an Academy and she decided to go back home so she isn t alone 0 Families in Transition China I Shows us macro influences I You need to apply for permission to get married 0 This is how government restricts births They also have the one child policy Implemented to cut down population Reduced by 300 million 0 Since then their standard of living has increased but the male is more favored because they want their name to continue through generations 0 Females are murdered when babies 0 Chinese government doesn t allow ultrasounds so they can t know the sex until after the birth This is to reduce the number of abortions and forced miscarriages 0 They tried to educate the positives of having a girl 0 Chinese girls were placed for adoption and the number has decreased as of today 0 History of Family Life in the US I Family Life in Colonial American European Colonists 0 Families were seen more ofas a team but men and women WEREN T considered equals 0 Families were selfsufficient and the businesses 0 Families were the schools 0 Families were the churches 0 Had no concept of adolescence You were either a child or an adult 0 Children were seen to be born with original sin so the parents were stricter I Colonial America African Americans and Slavery 0 1800s slave importation was banned 0 This is when Slave owners supported slave procreation o Husband or wife could be bought or sold so slave marriages were fragile I Children were usually left with the mother when father was moved Industrialization Urbanization and Immigration 0 Industrialization meant the economy shifted from small rural farms and families to larger more urban societies 0 Work became something that occurred away from home I Brought about child care issues 0 Industrialization led to urbanization because of large cities booming up 0 Immigration brought people from other countries in search for opportunities 0 People who are coming here lived in poverty and didn t have the adequate conditions necessary to reduce the stress in their life Lived in substandard housing and unsanitary conditions 0 Middle and Upper classes brought up llbread winner father and stay at home mother 0 Children at this time were seen as born innocent and the parent s job to raise a good citizen 0 20h century brought about increasing cars great depression and world wars 0 What is acceptable and traditional was changing within families 0 Adolescence is a social construction and new concept Families Today 0 Many can t survive on one paycheck and more women work now 0 There are more married women with children in the work force 0 Unemployment rates hover around 10 0 House Poor Pay for somewhere to live in which more than 12 of their paycheck pays for o 50 that make minimum wage is over the age of 25 0 Government considers minimum wage to be above the poverty line so it doesn t look as bad 0 Importance of Research Empirical approach An approach that answers questions through a systematic collection and analysis of data Goals of Family Research Describe some phenomena 0 Like patterns of domestic violence Examine the factors that predict or are associated with some phenomena 0 Like who reports violence compared to those who don t O O I Explain the causeandeffect relationships or provide insight into why certain events occur or don t 0 Is there a relationship with alcohol and domestic violence I Examining the meaning or interpretation of phenomena 0 What does the word victim mean to men versus women Difference between the meaning of victim and survivor Common Research methods Used to Study Families and Relationships SurveyRandom is very expensive and hard to do Many are done by convenient sampling ndepth interviewLess questions but more in detailed Experiment Test cause and effect relationships Done under highly controlled conditions Focus GroupInformation is obtained from a small group to discuss a topic Observational StudyWhen people go into the natural setting to observe It can either be directgets skewed a little or indirectlike the oneway mirror Secondary AnalysisMakes use of previously gathered researchUS Census called META analysis QuantitativeQualitativenumbers based quantitative and stories themes basedqualitative The Importance of Social Science Theory Theories Helping Us Make Sense of the World I Theory A general framework explanation or tool used to understand and describe the reallife world 0 Research is guided by theories I Theory is important for before and after data is collected so it can help us frame questions 0 Her theory was if her child slept more she would have fewer tantrums FAD2230 0 March 14 2012 v Intimate Partner Violence 0 Defined as violence between those who are physically and sexually intimate such as spouses or partners aka Domestic Violence Can encompass physical economic sexual or psychological abuse She worked with a couple Wifepart time job was given an allotted allowance from the husband 0 How we define and measure intimate partner violence Conflict Tactics Scale CTS A scale based on how people deal with disagreements in relationships 0 Non Aggressive responses disagreement and talk it out o Psychologically Aggressive response insult other person character assaults Physically Aggressive Response includes throwing something or slapping someone during an argument 0 Problem It assumes violence always follows an argument not always true though and doesn t look into extreme cases like example about allowance 0 Are Men or Women likely to be victims Bias and the CTS 0 We know that women are more likely to be victims of domestic violence 0 Frequency of Intimate Partner Violence Men are abused but it is super under reported If you are partying and see a girl slap a guy across the face many would blame the guy for saying something dumb and wouldn t interfere If you saw opposite then many would call him a jerk and intervene Laws that we have protect women Most men who go to police are sent home and told to deal with it Betty King had beaten slashed stabbed shot and threw acid on husband He went to police and he was told to go home and take care of situation She was arrested for stab and shooting but was released to live back home with her husband Husband one time grabbed gun from her one time and shot her and he got life because they didn t see it as selfdefense No case on record was a man given clemency for shooting wife but several wives have Table 112 Men won t remember women shoving him 0 Types of Intimate Partner Violence Common Couple Violence violence from a specific argument and someone lashes out physically Intimate Terrorism classified by the control of another partner Violent Resistance considered self defense I Mutual Violent Control both people have that controlling and violent behavior 0 Stalking and Cyberstalking 0 Consequences of intimate Partner Violence I Physical 0 Doesn t always result in death but could 0 Bruises broken bones and sometimes permanent injuries back pain I Psychological 0 Violence risky behaviors such as drugs and alcohol 0 Lower selfesteem and higher chance of suicide and isolation I Macro factors 0 Estimated that it costs us over 8 billion for domestic violence 0 Mental hospital safe houses etc o Coping with Violence Leaving and Staying I Slow process of chiseling away relationships until the abuse becomes more frequent and there is nowhere to go I Learned Helplessness The psychological condition of having low selfesteem feeling helpless and having no control that is caused by repeated abuse I Battered Women s Syndrome A recognized psychological condition often a subcategory of posttraumatic stress syndrome used to describe someone who has been the victim of consistent andor severe domestic violence 0 Violence in Gay and Lesbian relationships I Just as prominent as in heterosexual I Extremely under reported 0 Dating Violence I 1624 13 have experienced violence in relationships I Extremely under reported 0 Rape and Sexual Assault I Rape on College Campuses o llDate Rapequot Drugs Drugs that are used to immobilize a person to facilitate an assault FAD2230 February 17 2012 39239 Chapter 8 Thinking About Parenthood 0 Population and Fertility Trends Worldwide I Fertility and Mortality Rates The keys to understanding population growth 0 Fertility Rates A measure reported as 0 Average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime 0 Number of children born per 1000 women ages 1544 some other countries use 49 as cut off age 0 Number of children born per 1000 population most often used 0 1920s the growth was 118 births per 1000 women and then it declined about 15 years later in the 19305 to 77 per 1000 women 0 Great Depression in 1920s then 1950s it came back up after the war Baby boomers to 108 per 1000 women 1960s it dropped again because birth control became more widely available and continued to go down and stabled out about 70 per 1000 I Pronatalism o Pronatalism A cultural value that encourages childbearing 0 Expected part of life so when people decided they don t want to there is a more negative attitude toward them form society 0 AntiNatalism Children are not encouraged o On a plane restaurants or wedding 0 Children should be seen NOT heard 0 Fertility in United States I Delayed Parenthood o Is more than just a biological phenomenon 0 Reasons for later parenthood are often social nature 0 Average woman age 25 I Fertility slot is between ages 2035 I 30 fertility decreases I After 35fertility severely decreases 0 Many want to finish school or buy a house before starting 0 Costs and Rewards of Raising Children I Economic and Opportunity costs 0 Direct Financial Costs Outofpocket expenses for things such as food clothing housing and education 0 Opportunity Costs Lost opportunities for income by working only part time or not at all because of children I Rewards of Parenting 0 Costs definitely outweigh the rewards because you can quantify the costs but you can t quantify rewards o Remaniing Childfree I Infertility The inability to conceive a child after a 0 Effects 12 of couples and all income levels and ethnicracial groups 0 Effects men and women equally I Medical Treatment 0 Assisted Reproductive Technology ART All fertility treatments in which both egg or sperm are handled FAD2230 January 20 2012 0 Chapter 3Building relationships I 4 of US population never marry o Delayed marriages and Cohabitation I US Census Bureau defines relationships different than we do socially o Singlehood I What does it mean to be single A Useful Typology 0 Voluntary Temporary Singles Unmarried adults who may be delaying marriage while pursuing education or establishing a career 0 Many students 0 Voluntary Stable Singles Unmarried adults desiring a single unmarried lifestyle 0 Gayslegally single nuns priests o Involuntary Temporary Singles Singles actively searching for a mate but unable to find suitable one o Actively searching Involuntary Stable Singles Unmarried adults who expect to be single for life even though they may not want to be 0 Quit on trying More older divorced or widowed 0 Dating Courtship and Mate Selection I A look at history Macrolevel Influences on our Microlevel Choices I Courtship in Early America 0 Colonial times had a ton of supervisions over dating 0 Calling A dating practice of the 18 h and 19h centuries in which a young man would visit a young woman in her parent s home 0 Industrialization Consumerism and Emergence of dating 0 You could now go out and do things and drive places 0 Principle of Least Interest The idea that unequal emotional involvement between romantic partners has implications for the quality and stability of relationships Coined by Waller o Industrialization brought about the adolescent concept 0 Researcher Waller in 1930 did first dating study How do you choose your mates What attracts each sex I Men with automobile money and a good dancer were rated higher I Women dressed well popular and good communicators were rated higher I Macro Influences Today Sex and gender RaceEthnicity Social Class Social Orientation 0 Women s movement 1970s made dating more casual 0 Educational Act 1972 passed woman s access to sports created more coeducational activities 0 Gender and Dating 0 Dating Scripts A set of expectations around dating that are somewhat different for men and women I Women receive engagement ring only etc 0 Differences and Similarities in Dating Practices Social Class Race Ethnicity and Sexual Identity 0 Quince era or Bamitsfa 0 Gay and Lesbian can t really date comfortably 0 Different religionsethnicity restrict partners I A Micro View Who do we date and where do we meet 0 Dating Trends 0 Teens who date have higher selfesteem feel more independent and popular 0 Who do we date 0 Homogamous Relationships Relationships in which we spend most of our time with people who are very similar to ourselves I 51 don t approve biracial marriages o Propinquity Geographical closeness I Online dating skews this 0 Pool of Eligibles The group from which we are likely to choose our mates 0 Where do we meet 0 Work school or friends mostly 0 Who Uses Online Dating 0 More prevalent o More men than women 0 Heterosexual Cohabitation o Cohabitation An arrangement in which two people live together without being married I Who Cohabits 0 All races ages and social classes 0 68 million heterosexual I Attitudes toward Cohabitation Is it still llliving in sin FAD2230 January 11 2012 o The Importance of Social Science Theory 0 Theories Helping Us Make Sense of The World Theory A general framework explanation or tool used to understand and describe the reallife world 0 Either micro or macro 0 Need to look at table 13 Summary of Family Theories Structural Functionalism A theory that attempts to determine the structure systems functions and equilibrium of social institutions 0 How the family is organized and how it interacts with other social institutions 0 Research focuses on division of labor in the house and how it is influenced by our society and how it influences our society Conflict Theory A theory that emphasizes issues surrounding social inequality power conflict and social change 0 Looking at why the elderly receive government health care but children do not 0 How capitalism influences life Feminist Theory A theory in which gender is seen as the central concept for explaining family structure and family dynamics 0 Women labeled as better parent or usually win custody battles Three above were all macro theories Next three below are all micro Social Exchange Theory A theory that draws upon a model of human behavior used by many economists 0 We humans look at benefits versus costs In relationships and daily decisions 0 Principle of least interest person with least care in relationship holds more power Symbolic Interaction Theory A theory that emphasizes the symbols we use in everyday interaction words gestures appearances and how these are interpreted 0 Example is an engagement ring culturally symbolic Developmental Theory A theory that suggests families and individual family members go through distinct stages over time with each stage having its own set of tasks roles and responsibilities 0 Newlyweds Parents Systems Theory A theory that proposes that a family system the family members and the roles that they play is larger than the sum of its individual members Teacher s favorite 0 Everything around you affects you work education etc 0 Studies subsystems sibling subsystem parentchild subsystem etc 0 Really looks at communication within families She would strategically place chairs in room and watch if they move the chairs closer or farther The married couples usually sit in love seats The troubled ones sit far apart 0 Are We Rejecting Marriage and Family Relationships I Research shows that is not the case 0 Not much change in attitude or children since 70s I Numbered of married people are declining which is contributed to people just waiting longer due to other priorities such as school or job I High school seniors are usually surveyed Girls and boy both found it important but it was more important to girls 0 Many of them said they would like to get married and believe in staying married 0 She made emphasis on reading charts carefully Chapter 2 0 Social Status Sex Gender Race Ethnicity and Social Class 0 The Link Between Private Experiences and Social Structure I Social Stratification The hierarchical ranking of categories of people within society 0 Poor vs Middle class making decisions on buying a house or purchasing cable 0 Different experiences based on social class 0 Knowing differences is a good thing I 39 39 U39 quot U39 39 The U 39 39 that our personal experiences are in large part shaped by forces within the larger society 0 Certain categories are more likely to experience things more than others 0 Black family two teenage sons and both doctors They won t allow sons to drive the car at night because he was already pulled over twice because he was a black teenager driving a Mercedes The sons were also told to never run down the street 0 Family life influenced by a larger force 0 Sex Gender and Patriarchy I Sex Biological differences between men and women and their role in reproduction FAD2230 January 30 2012 0 Sexual Behaviors 0 Teenage Sexuality Pregnancy and Motherhood I Teenage pregnancy and motherhood 0 CDC says approx 46 of teen girl and 50 of teens boys have had sexual intercourse o By end of high school 23 of men and women have had sex 0 Numbers of teen pregnancy are declining 0 750000 under age of 20 are pregnant each year 0 435000 end up being teen moms 0 Children born to teen mothers are increased in changes for behavioral problems and poor lifestyle because teen moms have more financial stress and stress of finishing school 0 Teen moms have increased risk of delivering a dying child or one with defectscomplications 0 Higher instances of child abuse with teen mothers I Nonmarital sex and young adults 0 Traditionally there has been a stigma with sex out of marriage this has decreased 0 More accepted 0 By age of 25 90 of men and women have had nonmarital sex 0 Hooking up Sexual interactions without commitment or even affection for one another 0 More prevalent on college campuses 0 People who don t go to college apparently have more casual sex 0 Gay and Lesbian Sexual Relationships I Both homo and hetero expect monogamy No big difference among relationship expectations 0 Sex in Marriage I Extramarital sex Sex while married with someone other than your response I Vast majority say they are happy with sexual relations with spouse I Frequency of sex is once or twice a week I Most couples stay together especially with children after infidelity 0 Sex and the elderly I Sexual desire remains essential I Big problem with selling Viagra in retirement homes gtlt ewlol 0 Sexual Satisfaction in Committed Relationships 0 Both quality and quantity of sex is associated with feelings of love for one s spouse or partner 0 Men are more likely to feel that a poor sex life undermines the entire relationship O 0 Women are more likely to feel that a relationship can still be good even if the sex life is not so great Sexually Transmitted Infections STIs affect millions of Americans and an additional 19 million are infected every year Chlamydia is the most commonly reported one o 23 million people have chlamydia and about 1 million every year added 0 No symptoms usually which can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cause infertility spurious relationship HPV is another one o 20 million are infected and every year we have 62 million different cases 0 Most prevalent on FSU campus 50 of adults have HPV 0 90 of cases are cleared up by immune system 2 years HIV and AIDS 0 Blood to blood contact 0 Can be through pregnancy 20 0 As disease progresses you get AIDS 0 10 population is Africa and have 67 of AIDS cases 0 Richer you are the better you are to be able to manage the disease
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