Lecture notes, week 3
Lecture notes, week 3 CHM1045
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Merkle on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM1045 at Florida State University taught by Robert Cameron in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Chemistry in Chemistry at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
C H E M I CHM1045 Lecture Notes Dr Robert Cameron Lecture Notes from September 9 2015 Chapter two the Atom In early models was called the phlogiston but nobody uses this anymore and it is rarely called this The Law of De nite Proportions literally states that elements form in de ned proportions Dalton 1808 Derived that each element is composed of parts called atoms and that atoms of the same element are identical 0 These atoms can combine to form compounds same samples of the same compound will have the same number and ratio and types of atoms ll Thomson 1856 o Derived the chargetomass ration CRT involving magnetism and electron count Plum Pudding Model an quotatom could be thought of as a uniform positive sphere of matter in which electrons would be embedded like raisins in a cakequot Poeitive Charge spread over the entire phere httpconnectmheducationcomconnecthmEBookdo setTabsectionTabs Scientist R A Millikan used the outcome of Thomson s experiments in his famous quotoil dropquot experiment to nd that all electrons have an equal charge C H E M I CHM1045 Lecture Notes Dr Robert Cameron Rutherford s Scattering Experiment 0 New Zealand physicist who studied with Thomson oEssentially quotshotquot alpha radiation particles at very thin foils of gold and was surprised when some had bounced back at very large angles Such small particles should have been able to pass through the sheet with no problem Rutherford on his experiment quotIt was as incredible as if you had red a 15inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit youquot Rutherford was able to conclude from his experiment that atoms must be mostly empty space and that when the alpha particle came close to the nucleus of the gold atoms it experienced a strong repulsive force in a direction This brings us to the modern view of the atom with an overall positive charge and most of the mass concentrated in the nucleus electron p rptn neutron nucleus httpb68389medialibdlodstercommedia6b80eb200cf6ed9cf04f9cc 4a56a77b207679b90d8949c93fe073e7ac9a239c2atoms2jpg Mostly empty space Electrons diffusely occupy the space around nucleus Protons pt 0 Determine the element and the chemical identity Zinc has 30 protons C H E M I CHM1045 Lecture Notes Dr Robert Cameron Zn 6539 Neutrons n0 quotProton gluequot 0 Found in the nucleus obviously Fun fact radiation occurs when unstable nuclei decompose and try to become stable Electrons e39 0 quotdo chemistryquot Electrons of one element interact with the electrons of other elements the entire atom does not interact 0 Determine the interactivity with other elements 0 Atomic mass unit amu is roughly the mass of a proton or neutron Isotopes isotopes are elements that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers mass number is the total amount of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus 0 Take carbon for example Same element three different isotopes You can have 12C 13C 14C fun fact 14C is the isotope used in carbon dating Isotopes are very important to pay attention to Na and Na are very different and react differently Ex Cl is chlorine Cl39 is chloride Please note Lecture notes from September 11 2015 involve nomenclature rules which can be found on Blackboard No extra notes were taken