Week Four! (:
Week Four! (: PBIO 1000
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alivia Hunt on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 1000 at Ohio University taught by Arthur Trese in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Plants and the Global Environment in Environmental Science at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
PBIO September 15 2015 TO KNOW FOR QUIZ Everything in the Web Links above the Chris Had eld link Using natural gas to create electricity gives you power with 1L2 the greenhouse gas emissions of coal Whv are we using less coal and more natural gas for electricitv production 0 The cost of natural gas is less than coal 0 The price has fallen by 70 by 2008 Has the US achieved the 7 below 1990 emissions goal that Kvoto would have reguired No 0 We have lowered our emissions but we were not able to meet the Kyoto requirements even though we did not sign it c We are halfway there Kyoto has ended for other countries how did they do 0 Some people have met requirements 0 The countries that succeeded were due to the other countries that went through a recession 0 This is because of the Soviet Union becoming only Russia and there support was removed This is something that made their emissions go down MANY have not lowered their emissions What is one country that has me Kyoto Obligations England Britain have severely changed their ways 0 They had a lot of changes in policies Summary Kyoto less successful that Montreal protocol 0 Many countries not able to meet the requirements HISTORY 2009 Global Meeting in Cooenhaden Did president Obama come back with speci c commitments on emissions limits 0 No nothing speci c came out of the meeting 0 What was the Copenhagen Commitment 0 To prevent the planet from getting more than 2 degrees Celsius warmer PBIO September 15 2015 c As the US emissions have gone down have total global emissions continued to rise 0 Yes and China now exceeds US as the biggest player in total emissions 0 On a per person basis who leads the world in GHG emissions 0 The US at roughly two times that of China 0 What major country was reluctant to set speci c reduction targets at Copenhagen meeting 0 China because they are a very closed and secretive society so their people do not know a lot about what is going on in the government China does not want people to come in and measure what is happening with their emissions and that was a requirement of the treaty Chinese policy did not agree with the treaty requirements 0 Has the US established any regulations on greenhouse gases 0 In the fall of 2009 the House of Representatives passed the American Clean Energy and Security Act Committing the US to a 17 reduction from 2005 levels by 2020 The senate has not passed a bill so no US law or treaty has actually been made 0 This winter there will be another global meeting in Paris What will the US do 0 Maybe there will be a policy generated Build more nuclear power plants Haven t built one in 20 years c There are no regulations to build a new nuclear power plants 0 Even if we started today it would take 10 years because of lack of information costs etc 0 Not in the time frame or safety regulations Regulatory Emissions for Automobiles Have lowered it some Carbon Tax 0 Raising the price by adding a tax on the use of something like cigarettes Sin tax alcohol and cigarettes History of Taxing Fossil Fuels The future quotCarbon Economyquot 0 The long term goal would be to keep lowering carbon emissions achieve 39clean energy39 renewable energy to run our planet 0 Two strategic ways to reduce greenhouse gases overall 0 Economic Strategy add a tax on everything based on its MTCEs generated MTCE Metric tons carbon equivalent PBIO September 15 2015 Greenhouse Gas Tax 0 Sometimes called quotCarbon Tax Applied to Oil Coal and Natural Gas All taxed based on greenhouse gas emissions 0 The tax will be twice as much as natural gas because there is twice the amount of GHG What about cows or land lls who let off methane should we tax those 0 Should farmers that have animals that admit methane pay a small tax Do Carbon taxes apply to only carbon dioxide 0 NO it applies to all gases converted to MTCEs Is the cost of the tax passed on to consumers YES Because the people who are using it are the ones that are paying for it o More polluting activities become more expensive How high should the 39carbon tax39 be c We don39t know It depends on you emission reduction goals What country has SERIOUSLY discussed this strategy 0 England Britain UK What country added a carbon last year 0 France 0 The goal is to cu the use of fossil fuels by 30 by 2030 What Canadian providence has had a carbon tax for 5 years 0 British Columbia 0 AND IT WORKED It appears to have lowered the use of gasoHne What is the tax money going to Argued that they put tobacco tax into tobacco education 0 They took the tax and lowered the tax that people were paying for income tax Has the tax cause British Columbia to suffer economically No Would a carbon tax cost everyone money 0 No if you don39t use fossil fuels you do not have to pay the tax 0 Using less energy could save you money Corporations that try to go green can pay less money because of the tax Would a carbon tax encourage renewable energy 0 Yes Renewable nonpolluting energy is not taxed so more cost competitive making anything 39green39 is made more competitive Are Americans willing to pay a carbon tax on energy PBIO September 15 2015 o No Americans do not want to pay more taxes and because the tax could stretch to air lines cars food land lls etc Those things could cost you more in daily life 0 39Cap and Trade39 Strategy Regulatory strategy simply sets limits or caps on emissions MTCEs called 39allowances39 Unit of regulation either nation industry business unit Kyoto Protocol Emission Credits 0 Each country commits to cap on emissions by lowering it 39allowances39 each year in MTCEs o If one country can reduce emissions to below their allowance and another is above theirs the overachieving country can sell the credit to the underachieving company 0 Known as carbon offsets What is a carbon credit or carbon offset o It is an unused allowance assigned by you treaty or government Has a 39cap and trade strategy been used before 0 Yes good example Montreal Protocol Emissions trading 0 People can sell their credit in auction style ways 0 Japan has bought up a lot of those carbon credits In Europe one MTCE credit valued between 30 and 40 0 If I reduce emissions of Nitrous Oxide to one tome below allowances you can earn about 270 MTCEs and at 30 each that would be 8100 Would cap and trade actually encourage the development of clean renewable energy resources 0 Yes because owners can sell power and also sell credits 0 Each different type of energy have a different allowance and different credit Renewable energy has mostly credits which is a big incentive to build renewable energy If I buy credits I am funding cleaner energy systems one credit at a time which creates incentive to build green In Europe since 2007 have GHG emissions fallen similar to the US 0 Yes in fact their emissions have gone down further than ours did 0 The value of credits went down because emissions went down Price of carbon credits in Europe has fallen since 2008 because 0 A when emissions fall fewer allowances are needed so value of 39credits39 goes down As price falls the incentive to lower carbon emissions goes down as well What was the Chicago Climate Exchange PBIO September 15 2015 o In the US voluntary market for carbon credits sold for 4 each not 30 as in Europe 0 Why were carbon credits sold so much cheaper in the US 0 Because there was no requirement it is completely voluntary As of 2010 the CCX closed 0 Remember that since 2008 US MTCE emissions have fallen by17 Who buys carbon credit 0 Countries or companies that exceed their allowances under Kyoto obligation 0 Ex BP British Petroleum although they do business in the United States they are based in the UK and they have to buy credits because of their emissions 0 Companies like Google voluntarily to limit their assigned greenhouse gas emissions Who supports carbon trading 0 General Motors General Electric John Deere Ford Motor Company Duke Energy and AEP among others Why do many businesses support a 39cap and trade39 program 0 Business see the opportunity to sell credits 0 Many businesses see opportunity in building or selling the next generation of energy supply Businesses want some predictability some policy something to use to plan their investments and their future
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