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Chapter 3- Data Collection and Research Designs

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 3- Data Collection and Research Designs PSYC 301

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 301 > Chapter 3 Data Collection and Research Designs
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Research Methods in Psychology
Dr. Erin Murdoch

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About this Document

Taken from Dr. Murdoch's Research Methods class last semester
Research Methods in Psychology
Dr. Erin Murdoch
Class Notes
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Popular in Research Methods in Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 301 at George Mason University taught by Dr. Erin Murdoch in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
student email address PSYC 301 0 Spring 2015 I 7 IL 7 7 9 7 1L 7 Eu N w 3939 lt39 3 V H ml tlu sw 7 w lt m l llngagrlwlwl q w x21 all mirth Hquot quot i Hiquot i l See table of data collection techniques in textbook List examples for each of the research design types Construct vs Operational Definitions Data Collection Techniques Types of Research Designs O a to personality disorder e Genie Little Albert 0 o choosing a research design 0 concerns internal vs external validity 0 consider research questions I how two or more variables are related I how one variable affects another I indepth examination of target phenomenon I considering an eventphenomenon that occurred in the past 2315 0 construction select topic 0 0 general tips for constructing survey e Do you eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly e How satisfied are you with the fast responses of your TA to email 2515 Correlational Studies research 0 designs that look a lot like true experiments and that are statistically analyzed in similar ways 0 the researcher can compare groups but doesn t control the nature andor the timing of the treatment or comparison variable Or the treatment may be a participant variable 0 Causal interpretations cannot be made 0 Participant variables variables associated with the participants themselves eg gender race selfselected treatment correlational research 0 Correlations describe the relation between naturally occurring variables 0 As scores on Variable A increase do scores on Variable B tend to increase POSITIVE CORRELATION I IQ and school success 0 As scores on Variable A increase do scores on Variable B tend to decrease NEGATIVE CORRELATION I Education and prejudice o Magnitude of correlation o absolute value goes from 000 gt 100 0 direction of correlation indicated by o closer to 100 means stronger correlation bt two variables I Height and age in children r 90 I Selfesteem and shyness r 47 o CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION 0 why use a correlational approach 0 simple just measure 2 variables 0 less intrusive ie survey 0 only approach available ethics I smoking I abusive relationships I cancer a analyzing correlational research 0 Pearson correlation coefficient most common correlational coefficient used in psychology I Describes linear relationship between two interval or ratio variables ie numerical scales 0 acceptable terms for correlation get have linked more less tied connectedrelated tend associated o avoid these terms when discussing correlation cause increasedecrease benefits impacts enhances effectaffect improvesboosts ifgt then statements 21 on 5 Get the Freshman Psychology scantrons for next Wednesday s exam Experimental Research 0 we can confidently conclude a cause and effect relationship bt variables if and only if the appropriate study has been conducted goal in conducting experiments gt to show that IV causes a change in DV True experiment the IV must be under the control of the researcher o Quasiexperimental design the effect of some variable or event that occurs naturally researcher can t randomly assign participants to groups Where we do experiments 0 controlled experiments in laboratory 0 advantages I better control over IV Roo ice aver m cold age tem p tap 5 gen 7 eric deer 7 park fiji 1O I can more precisely measure DV I improved internal validity o disadvantages I some phenomena can t be studied in the lab some research topics present ethical problems practical disadvantages Ie costly time consuming outcomes may not be applicable to real world lack of external validity o experiments in the field 0 improved external validity 0 may lack internal validity because of lack of control How we do experiments 0 independent groups designs 0 important assumption in experimental design gt initial equivalence of groups 0 participants are randomly and independently assigned to each level of the independent variable 0 AKA between participants design 0 between groups design one IV I each participant is assigned to only one level of the IV I Simplest completely randomized design two group design where participants are randomly assigned and independently assigned to either an experimental group or a control group ie IV has two levels I Can also use one IV with more than two levels 0 between groups design more than one IV I participants are randomly assigned to one level of each IV or factor I allow us to assess o the effects of more than one IV on DV main effects 0 interactions bt IVs interaction effect 0 dependent groups design 0 withinparticipants design the same participants are used in all treatment conditions I AKA repeated measures designs I fewer participants assume initial equivalence of groups I may involve taking measures of DV at different times time would be IV I Carryover effect when same participants serve in all conditions we must be concerned about carryover or order effect such as fatigue and practice 0 use counterbalancing to control for this I Ie effect of reward on ability to shoot free throws see PPT o matchedgroup design matched sets of participants are assigned in such a way that one member of each matched set is randomly assigned to each treatment condition or group I provides added power of dependent groups designs and eliminates the problem of carryover effects I matching variables participants are matched or made equivalent on variables that correlate with DV I by using appropriate matching variables the error variance due to individual differences is reduced and power is increased 0 mixed designs variable is assessed bt participants and another variable is assessed win participants How are the groups treated differently 0 experimental roups Main effect and Interactions 0 Most human characteristics are complex and have many causes many IVs that influence a single DV 0 these variables might depend on one another in complex ways I Oneway vs factorial design 0 twowa desi n 2 IVs 3wa desi n 3 IVs etc Should I use within or between participants design 0 no easy answer 0 tradeoff between increased ability to reject null within and lack of carryover effects ibetweeni 21215 Nuts of Bolts of Quasiexperiments o eg research done in educational settings often involves a quasiexperiment because the researcher cannot affect the classroom students are in or the teacher they have Common Pitfalls p 264 0 problem confusing experiments and quasiexperiments 0 problem confusing correlational studies and quasiexperiments


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