Week Four (14-17 Sept. 2015) JFK’s Flexible Response to Vietnam and LBJ & Escalation
Week Four (14-17 Sept. 2015) JFK’s Flexible Response to Vietnam and LBJ & Escalation HIST 3370
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3370 at Bowling Green State University taught by Benjamin Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see The Vietnam War in History at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Week Four 1417 Sept 2015 JFK s Flexible Response to Vietnam and LBJ amp Escalation JFK s Flexible Response to Vietnam Flexible Response J FK s defensive strategy for various types of Soviet attack Counterinsurgency COIN strategy to fight an enemy blending in with the native population NSAM 263 J FK s commitment to Withdrawal NSAM 273 Document escalating US involvement in Vietnam 60 US Election NLF formed 61 Jan JFK inaugurated AprJune Bay of Pigs Vienna US Advisors 600gt2000 62 Oct Cuban Missile Crisis US Advisors 2000gt11000 to a combat support role 63 US Advisors 11000gt16000 Jan Ap Bac May Buddhist revolt July JFK Berlin Visit Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Oct Administrative Debates on Vietnam 12 Nov Coup in South Vietnam 22 Nov J KF assassination Waging Cold War in the Third World Vietnam test case for nation building and fighting COIN Counterinsurgency to contain Communism in Third World Growing instability in South Vietnam Buddhist Revolt and CoupAssassination of Diem 63 NSAM 263 Kennedy commitment to leaving Vietnam Kennedy was youngest President and Ike was oldest Shared idea of needing to contain SovietCommunist aggression Differed in how to do so JFKfocus on 3rd World The Iron Curtain is Set already Ike didn t do enough to protect the 3rd World from Communism Fall of Cuba to Communism Too many nuclear weapons doesn t do anything to an insurgency too musclebound no credibility in a guerrilla war Greatest initial concern in Southeast Asia is Laos Weak start as President Bay of Pigs Vienne USSR verbally beat him down Kennedy says the wars in SE Asia aren t national wars of liberation because there are already established governments in place USSR says they are wars of liberation Modernization by J FKPeace Corps can accelerate modernization by intervening with aid make Special Forces and COIN a big deal Hilsman SF trains South Vietnamese to be guerrillas COIN harass insurgents Center of Gravitvgt Secure population and separate from insurgents Doesn t send in a lot of ground troops but advisors to make small footprint but still slowly escalate US involvement Escalation corresponds with Strategic Hamlet Program 62JFK increasing US rolegt advisors accompany South Vietnamese into combat increasing US casualties and increases air support Oct 62 Cuban Missile Crisisgt gave JFK Strong antiCommunist credentials E 122 US dead in Vietnam AM South Vietnamese perform poorly vs insurgents Countryside situation is deteriorating and Diem regime losing credibility Buddhist revolt escalating government losing credibility but not trying too much to win over the people Proof government isn t living up to US ideals Diem using troops for internal rivals not against the Communists JFKgt Strong credibility and support for foreign policygt strong reception in Berlin Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty New Ambassador to VietnamgtHenry Cabot Lodge Jr Nixon s running mate in 60gtget on good terms with Republicans and if Vietnam is lost the Republicans will look bad as well 12 Nov 63Coup in South Vietnam not surprising because many soldiers were Buddhists and Diem used them to suppress the Buddhists hopes that new government will come in and be better opposite happenedgtmultiple coups after this 3 Weeks Later JFK assassinated major whatifs ground troops because Johnson had J FK s advisors also withdrawal didn t use force in other situations would of kept troops in until at least 64 for reelection J FKinhouse deliberations when discussing issues LBJ wants a consensus Why didn t JFK say corrupt regime didn t deserve US help Choosing War LBJ and Escalation Rolling Thunder Bombing campaign aimed at North Vietnam George Ball Main dissenter to escalation of US involvement in Vietnam Tonkin Gulf Resolution blank check given for operations to be conducted in Vietnam Pleiku Attack on US base further prompting US escalation of involvement Vietnam 63 64 LBJ s Inheritance Tonkin Gulf Resolution and 64 Elections 65 Pleiku street cars ROLLING THUNDER and deploying US Combat Troops why did LBJ Americanize the war George Ball Voice of Caution and Dissent 63 11 Oct NSAM 263 12 Nov Saigon Coup 22 Nov JFK Assassination 26 Nov NSAM 273 64 May LBJ Russell discussion Aug Tonkin Gulf Nov LBJ reelected 65 Feb PleikugtRolling Thundergt Ann Arbor July White House debates Nov Battle of Ia Drang Ikegt J FK Ike Advisors for training only JFK went on patrols called in air support etc It s their war Political change would lead to greater political stability NSAM 263 support coup NSAM 273 doesn t really reverse NSAM 263 does escalate US involvement especially covert operations LBJ torn about what to do in Vietnam hesitant to go into Vietnam but doesn t want to lose it LBJ and Russell discussion it s not very important but we re already there do things that are short of sending in combat troops Tonkin Gulf SF train South Vietnamese commandos to sabotage North Vietnam protected by US ships North Vietnamese attack ships 2nd attack by North Vietnamese on ships likely never happened confused reports about if attacks ever happened campaigned as peaceful candidate Mattacked escalation needs to happen if we re going to be attacked Rolling Thunder combat troops etc M independently operating troops fighting in Saigon to defend Berlin Europe opposes US escalation
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