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History since the 1900's

by: dresaavedra

History since the 1900's

Marketplace > University of St. Thomas > History > > History since the 1900 s
History Since the 1900's

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Notes from class and from book History Since the 20th Century written by Hallock
History Since the 1900's
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by dresaavedra on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to at University of St. Thomas taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see History Since the 1900's in History at University of St. Thomas.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
91715 956 PM 91715 956 PM Chapter 2 The Great War VOCAB WORDS Black hand a well established antigovernment group in Serbia Stalemate Great War Trench warfare a matter of survival given the longrange artillery and chemical weapons used during the Great War Space between allied and German trenches a space called nomans land Hague Convention more than 124000 tons of chemical weapons were produced and almost 51000 tons used during the Great War Total war Great war often considered beginning of an era or total war The Balkan Conflict Spreads Worldwide Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28 Nearly 6250 miles of trenches were dug on the western front alone in the first 6 months of the war Frontline trench for firing the support trench for backup men and weapons and reserve trench Stalemate at Sea Battleships Battle cruisers Torpedo boats Submarine called the Uboat in Germany First naval battle occurred when British attacked the northwest German coast creating a blockade to prevent the German military from moving into and out of the port Germany tried to break out of blockade 9 Battle of Jutland 0 May 31 June 1 1916 Total War Great War often considered the beginning of an era of total in terms of its geographic scope and ways in which technology was applied Chemical weapons longrate artillery uboats and airplanes extended military conflicts across continents into seas and through air Hague Convention more than 124000 tons of chemical weapons produced and almost 51000 tons used during Great War Many elements of this war specifically targeted civilians Naval blockades and uboats cut off trade leading to poverty and starvation across Europe and Russia Vital resources were directed for military use civilians were left with limited access to coal oil medical supplies and transportation 20th centuries first genocide 15 million Armenians deported or died in Ottoman Empire ran by Turks Revolutions Restructure Russia The Russian Revolution March 1917 People had had enough of the dictatorship with tsar Brutal repression incompetence in governing widespread famine poverty soldiers were sent to battle illequipped and no political power Revolution that occurred was totally spontaneous The Bolshevik Revolution Bolsheviks believed in the leadership of their own central committee they would determine when the time was right for revolution Lenin was to lead the Bolsheviks in overthrowing the government and pull Russia out of the war The Bolsheviks ruled Russia Bolshevik government became a paramilitary organization using violence to suppress middle upper and socialists groups Bolsheviks nationalized land and turned it over to the peasants Got Russia out of the Great War signing the treaty of BrestLitovsk in 1918 Russia lost a lot of territory 13 total population 12 industrial capacity and almost all its coal mines The United States Enters and the Great War Ends President Woodrow Wilson limited material help for the allies Joining the war meant joining the allies which meant becoming allies with Russia which he did not want US had been shipping allies weapons and supplies throughout the war US wanted to be neutral Wilson forced Kaiser Wilhelm to sign Sussex Pledge promising to respect US neutrality In a year Germany violated that agreement Wilson had no choice but tend diplomatic relations with Germany GermanMexican alliance came about Germany promised Mexico to help them gain back Texas New Mexico and Arizona 1917 America had little choice US had been threatened by Zimmermann note US declared war on Germany in 1917 Preparing for War 27 million Americans drafted Wilson was completely against war but had no choice Wilson announced his Fourteen Points platform of peace freedom of the seas removal of economic barriers to trade reduction of armament spending decolonization abolishing secret deal making in international politics and self determination for all peoples of the world Collective security everyone comes together to work out potential conflicts guaranteeing peace Europe looked at Wilson as a laughing stock US Militarv Participation US military decided they would have best chance of defeating Germany About 2 million American soldiers sent overseas Germans forced to retreat and lost ground Americans drove 43 German divisions back 30 miles The Great War Ends 1918 Bulgaria was defeated Germany was done with war Conclusion Fatalities were about 85 million men 21 million wounded 775 million missing or imprisoned War cost about 186 billion Every country went into deep debt Recovering this money became difficult because working men had been killed Much of Europe s farmlands were destroyed by trenches and residue of chemical warfare Much of the money was spent on technology By the end of 1918 US had shown its military might Chapter 3 The Interwar Years The Treaty of Versailles Formal settlement of the First World War consisted of 5 separate treaties Treaty of Versailles signed on June 28 1919 and on August 10 1920 0 Few concepts of Wilson s Fourteen Points were included Of the 440 clauses in the treaty 400 consisted of punishing Germany Demilitarized zone DMZ was created in German territory to separate it from France and Belgium Germany had to take full on responsibility for starting the war 0 Given that it made sense that Germany pay for the entire cost of the war Weimar Republic created in August 1919 parliamentary republic led by social democrats a liberal political party representing interests of working class Sovereign the right to rule a territory and its people without outside interference Wilson s vision of a peaceful world created a League of Nations 0 Countries that agreed to pursue common policies and cooperate with one another in the common interest of preventing war League of Nations Suffered from some serious handicaps Tried to focus on moral obligations but became to difficult because it was interpreted differently by all people League s consequences for violating world peace economic sanctions would end up hurting everyone because they slowed down trade Any credible military threat would have to include the US but they weren t a member League of Nations had very little power to enforce Internationalism a policy of cooperation among nations 0 US was prepared to let the world make political decisions without its input Treaty of Rapallo was made between Germany and Russia in 1922 o Restored diplomatic relations between two countries and settled territorial disputes on Germany s eastern border Everyone agreed not to use military force against the others and Germany was allowed to join League of Nations in 1926 France was still nervous about Germany and worried that the US would not be of any help because it had not joined the League of Nations Pacifism the moral opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes 0 Much more powerful influence after war than militarism Militarism the policy of aggressive military preparedness Treaty of Versailles one of the most controversial treaties in modern history Many historians claim that it was too tough on Germany and created conditions that led directly to the rise of Adolf Hitler Others believe that it was too easy on Germany because they didn t prevent Germany from rebuilding into a powerful state Others say the treaty was fine Treaty did not end imperialism instead allies gained more territory as they divvied up Germany s colonies and former Ottoman lands Great War proved that technological advancements dramatically changed the way countries could gain or lose territory Successor state a country created out of territory taken from a previously well established state 0 Austria Hungary was carved into four successor states 0 Austria Hungary Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia Mandate a territory granted to a league member for the purpose of establishing a government Ottoman Empire was divided into separate territories League of Nations mandates given to Great Britain and France as protectorates Poland was comprised of pieces of Germany Austria and Russia and could not get different experiences and outlooks coordinated into one government Hungary s economy was reliant on agriculture so postwar economic depression destroyed Hungary The USSR Bolshevik Revolution led directly to Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921 pitted reds Bolsheviks against whites anticommunists When Tsar Nicholas the 2nd and his family were executed in 1918 Russia was no longer an empire USSR established a oneparty political system under Communist party led by Vladimir Lenin o Began process of completely restructuring political economic and social systems according to communist ideology A Student s Guide to History 91715 956 PM Chapter 2 Succeeding in Your History Class Make sure to do the readings before class Know how to navigate a textbook Preview assigned chapter to get a sense of its organization Never fail to note something that the instructor indicates is important Summarize major points when note taking Look up any unfamiliar words Note pgs 18 amp 19 good note taking Come to class prepared Participate in class discussions Don t be overcritical when peer reviewing Pay attention to the thesis Chapter 3 Working with Historical Evidence Primary sources raw materials that historians use to reconstruct the past 0 For example a person a corporation a government agency religious institution Artifacts another type of nonwritten primary source 0 For example houses public buildings tools clothing Secondary sources the findings of writers who were not participants in a historical episode but have investigated primary evidence of it 0 Example when a historian publishes the results of their research 0 Notes and bibliographies are other examples Primary and secondary sources can be found in books scholarly journals websites and databases When reading written sources make sure to read through the introduction brief abstract central argument etc Pay special attention to thesis and conclusions Monograph a book length study of one specialized topic Anthology a book of readings on a particular subject usually primary documents from larger secondary works Historical novel a work of fiction based on actual occurrences and real people History resources often include maps and statistical data Primary sources also include sound and video recordings photographs illustrations and artifacts


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