Week 4 Notes, China and Nationalism
Week 4 Notes, China and Nationalism INR3003
Popular in Intro to International Affairs
Popular in International Studies
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beatriz Arteaga on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INR3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Studies at Florida State University.
Reviews for Week 4 Notes, China and Nationalism
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/17/15
The Rise of China I China39s Rapid Rise or you could say Rapid Resurrection Came back to the status that they used to hold China was at the top until the West began to advance in technology government etc West fights two Opium wars against China they allowed western powers to exert force over China ll History of China A Qing Dynasty 16441912 1 Opium Wars 1st SinoJapanese War Boxer Rebellion China begins to weaken and its relationship with surrounding states begins to sour Boxer rebellion allows the West to see just HOW weak China really is 2 Bela d Reform Halfhearted attempt to reform but it was too late Due to the attempt to reform and how weak China was the Qing dynasty fe Rough transition from 2000 years of dynasty to new government B Nationalist Period Guomindang Sun Yatsen quotFather of Modern Chinaquot Chiang Kaishek became the head of the new nationalist government 1 Civil War 192749 Was fought between the nationalists and the communists The civil war went on the entire time the nationalist government was in power Trying to run a brand new government AND fighting a war not a good outcome for government 2 2nd SinoJapanese War WWII China and Japan again The atrocities that took place were aimed towards civilians not soldiersgovernment officials War came to an end in 1945 when the US beat Japan Nationalists fell from power which caused the communist government to rise C People39s Republic of China Communist Era 1949 Present 1 Mao Zedong39s Policies Mao is the father of communist China Death toll attributed to Mao is 77 million due to poor policies Mao saw that the US was trying to enforce democracy and told citizens that the US was trying to take over China this made US the top enemy 1a Relations with the USSR Weren39t all that great Soviets wanted China to adopt their exact model of communism but Mao had his own vision of China The friendship between China and USSR was always rather shaky 1b Great Leap Forward SinoSoviet Split and the Cultural Revolution Great Leap Forward policy ended relationships with USSR Soviets furious Policy intended to increase industrialization Goal was to surpass Great Britain in steel production in only 15 years Let the peasants make steel in their backyards steel furnaces But now who s farming the land 1959 China and Soviets split completes in 1960 1966 was the Cultural Revolution quotpurificationquot Goal was to quotpurgequot all the members of society who weren39t 100 with Mao quotThe Red Guardquot KIDS went around and found people who weren39t communist 30 million people die 1c Relations with the US Once China wasn39t friendly with Soviets US begins having relations with China While Cultural Revolution was going on China opened the door for the US for two reasons 1 Mao39s idea to industrialize failed Therefore they needed the US to supply China with the tech and the experts And 2 China Peoples Republic of China wanted in the UN So an offer was made 1971 Kissinger flew to China and met with Mao to open doors for diplomatic relations Paved the way for Nixon to go to China didn39t want China as an enemy or to go back to USSR due to the Cold War going on 1971 China gained a PERMANENT seat in the UN and Taiwan loses its seat There are only 5 permanent seats Security Council because they are all NUCLEAR POWERS 1972 Nixon traveled to China and met with Mao US did not recognize China until 1979 2 Deng Xiaoping quotlittle manquot Was purged twice came back twice Opened the doors to China was now open for business Wanted to stay communist and have a capitalist form of economy 2a Economic Reforms Statecontrolled capitalism Opened the doors to foreign investments huge transfer of technology knowledge expertise etc Deng said quotTo get rich is gloriousquot he wanted to make China great again b Tiananmen Square 1989 Protests lead to massacre These protests were the climax of a growing democracy movement in China Protesters consisted of educated elites Deng sent the military in and fired on the people who were UNARMED Damages China s relations with the Western world taken as a HUGE violation of human rights Lost the ability to hold the Olympics due to this 3 Jiang Zemin to Hu Jintao to Xi Jinping Jiang Zemin not very popular Hu Jintao quotcold as icequot responsible for the huge internet firewall in China Xi Jinping current general secretary and president of the government and head of military in China 0 lst and most important title in China is General Secretary Ill What Happens Now Is China a Threat Realist and Liberal predictions Realists are a bit concerned with China39s rise transfer or power most likely leads to war Rising power may act aggressively to show dominance May result in conflict between the U5 and China China39s military is largest in terms of man power 25 million and is spending about 200 billion a year for military budget Realists say that resources may cause a conflict oil Many disagreements with China over human rights issues China wants Taiwan and the U5 has made it clear that if China is the aggressor we will step in The U5 is obligated BY TREATY to fight with Japan if China and Japan get into another war A lot of the US39s debt is owed TO China which is very very very bad Liberals say China39s rise will be within the context of cooperation and will not result in conflict Expect us to continue to work with China Yes China39s military expenses has been going up but the U5 military FAR surpasses China39s Yes China39s economy has been growing but the U5 is still surpassing China U5 and China are both a part of many international organizations makes us partners China might become stronger than the U5 economically it will never be stronger than the entire West which is linked together tightly The connection between U5 and China means that we will cooperate China39s holding of U5 debt China want us to be able to pay off the debt therefore they will not let us fall economically Liberals expect continued cooperation and peace Nationalism and the NationState I Nation State New Concept The world is now organized in states to be recognized by the UN you must be a state Nation states became the new quotitquot thing post WWI ll Vertical and Horizontal Legitimacy As states began to increase power beyond their borders they had to increase connection between the leader and the people Requires legitimacy Vertical legitimacy connects the leadership to the people and people to the leadership up and down 0 Leadership39s ability to establish its right to rule and establishing that right within the border of the territorial state Horizontal legitimacy who belongs there side to side 0 Ex France People in France are French speak French their ancestors and probably French 0 Common history share the same culture 0 Nation is defined by community not borders Vertical is to state Horizontal is to community Common denominator is SHARED VALUES Ill Hard vs Soft Power Nye Power doesn39t necessarily mean force There is a show of power on how states influence others Hard power Coercive power wielded through inducements or threats 0 Military 0 Coercive diplomacy quotdo this or elsequot threat of punishment to get what we want 0 Large powers are the ones that can affectively wield hard power Soft power the capacity to persuade others to do what one wants 0 No threats simply persuasion 0 Persuasion comes from the attraction and immulation of intangible power 0 Weaker states are more likely to rely on soft power IV PreNation State PoliticalReligious empires Holy Roman Empire City states A Feudalism Not as powerful as states are today King or Queen wasn39t recognized Feudal Lord Borders were not clearly defined Capacity of the states was weak King controlled the aristocrats aristocrats controlled the people B Subiects or Citizens n feudalism they are subjects had no say in who became KingQueen 1861 in Italy only 3 spoke Italian on a regular basis V Creation of the Modern NationState Creating borders and recognizing them Treaty of Westphalia after 30 years war European powers agreed to recognize each other s borders and respect them as sovereign A France Louis XIV Wanted to strengthen France and project French power but needed a strong large army Started getting money for an army through taxing the people had to create the direct link between King and people vertical legitimacy Centralization process he begins to centralize power within borders with direct links to the people horizontal legitimacy Allowed him to build a standing army comprised of the people gave them an act of role in the empire Wanted to make France more French France was made the ONLY language in schools government etc forced people to learn French Learn about their history that they ALL share National identity nationalism B French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars Revolution and Napoleonic wars start this sense of nationalism Napoleon was fighting with citizen armies armies made up of CITIZENS NOT SUBJECTS French began to spread the nationalism inspired the rest of Europe Nationalism became real powerful in Italy and Germany states begin to turn into NationStates VI SelfDetermination A WWI Era 0 Spark where WWI ignites is Serbia and AustriaHungary 0 Core problem was nationalism 1 Role of Nationalism Became a problem with multiethnic empires Slovaks Serbia thought they should rule themselves not under AustriaHungary 2 AustriaHungary and Serbian problem Austria declared war on Serbia All the ethnic groups in AustriaHungary wanted to be their own NationState wanted to rule themselves B Post WWI Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes Yugoslavia Different people groups different religions Differences caused Yugoslavia to fall apart Ethnic violence Armenia Armenian massacre by the Turks because they didn39t belong in the community what would be Turkey 15 million Armenian killed C WWII Era Germany and the Holocaust Hitler wanted to create a better Germany quotAll Germans should be part of Germanyquot Nazi regime was intolerant of nonGermans directed at Jews 6 million Jews were killed 7 million nonJews were also killed as Nazis tried to create a quotpurequot Germany Nationalism can be VERY positive but also the complete opposite All states in Europe were nation states except Yugoslavia and USSR