Ch 3 Notes- Social Psychology
Ch 3 Notes- Social Psychology PSYC 3520
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3520 at Clemson University taught by Alice Brawley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Social Psychology Brawley Chapter 3 Social Cognition 0 Definition how to make social judgments about other people and groups and roles and own experience in a social setting 0 Examples deciding to work somewhere new deciding to date someone deciding to hang out with new friends 0 Steps of social inference 1 Gather information 2 Decide what information to use 3 Make a judgment by combining information BIASES IN GATHERING INFORMATION 1 Prior Expectations a Ex Liking a company before interview know about a blind date beforehand b Why is it a good thing i Helps us process lots of information c Why is it a bad thing i Because we tend to look for information that confirms expectation d When is it a bad thing i Prior expectation is wrong ii When perceiver doesn t realize they have prior expectation iii Prior expectation overrules all information already have mind made up iv When you get inconsistent information more likely to critique and ignore it 2 Small Sample only have a little information a Ex Meet someone who is having a bad day 3 Statistical Information information based on averages and totals a Ex 16 million car crashes involve texting and driving b Qse Historv Inform information about specific person or event i Ex My cousin got injured in a car crash because driver was texting and driving ii Typically case history information is more compellinghas bigger impact iii Why Case history has to be terrible might have a case history that contradicts the statistic 4 Impact of Negative Information a Negative information has greater impact than positive information b Ex Performance review everything good but one bad comment Social Psychology Brawley DECIDING WHAT INFORMATION amp MAKING JUDGMENTS 1 Judgments of Covariation figuring out what goes with what a EX Blondes have more fun b Two types i Associative Meanig see things go together that we think they should 1 EX Men are strong men don t cry ii Paired Distinctiveness two things have unusual feature should go together 1 EX Two people with same religious background 2 Framing Effects the way your available choices are framed affects the decision you make a EX Choice take someone to formal frame 1 heshe is attractive and nice frame 2 at least you ll have a date b Gain vs loss 3 Emotions a Bad when we get emotionally attached and don t pay attention to information b Good when help make decisions in best interest c PositiveNegative Emotions i Positive happy excited calm ii Negative sad jealous nervous stress d Negative mood made decisions with short term benefits but bad long term effects i EX Stressed eat feelings smoke e MoodCongruent Memorv tend to remember information that matches current mood i EX Positive mood remember good things ii EX Professor grading your participation stressed remembers negative things iii Sometimes people in negative mood try to think of positive to change their mood iv Positive mood tend to make fast decisions and use more varied information v Negative mood tend to work slower more precise consider everything 1 EX hangry because skip lunch makes it harder to decide what to eat vi When we have negative emotions 1 Suppress try to not think about a EX Avoid thinking about an argument 2 Reappraise changing the way you think about it 3 Ex Argument had good outcomes vii Affectjve Forecastingpredicting how you will feel after make some choiceevent and how long you will feel that way Social Psychology Brawley 1 It is bad because we don t account for other future choicesevents 2 Is it good because negative eventsemotions don t affect us forever 4 Evaluation good or bad a Initial judgment affects everything else decisions behavior etc 5 MotivationGoals a In uence by the judgment or interference that we want to make b In general we make inferences in a selfserving way i EX If we know 12 million car crashes were caused by texting and driving we might say we are good at itnever do it c Increase motivation for making accurate judgment by i Make people accountable ii Get people involvedinvested iii Pay people SCHEMAS the way we organize our thought about some concept 0 People in earlier notes 0 Events 0 EX Clemson football game getting ready for class playing a sport 0 Pros navigate new situations understand what s important in a new situation remember information better organize information process information quickly I Cons inaccurate schema apply schema inappropriately I Hierarchical Organization General gt Specific I Exemplars real examples I W abstract ideals 0 Schematic Processing 0 Helps us remember and organize I EX Librarian wears glasses attends metal concerts likes hamburgers 0 More likely to remember things that fit and don t fit 0 Helps us make inferences I EX Librarian infer like to read 0 Helps us make sense of ambiguous situationsnew people 0 Generate emotions I EX Librarian remember library day and how much you didn t like it 0 Cons I Overly accepting of consistent information I Fill in gaps inaccurately based on schemas I Apply schemas that don t fit I Unwilling to change schema O Leads to I Inaccurate conclusions I Wrong expectation I Inappropriate response Social Psychology Brawley HEURISTICS mental shortcuts 1 Representativeness Heuris if characteristics of a person fits a schema then we think that person fits a schema a Ex Characteristic wearing orange tshirt schema Clemson studentfan 2 Availability Heuristi think of examples of something then that thing is more common or likely a Ex People in your major 3 Mental Simulation mentally envisioning some outcome or evet in order to prepare or understand possibilities a Ex Imagine how a tough conservation will go b Simulation Heuristic easily realistically imagine some outcome then that outcome is more likely c Counterfactual Reasoning imagining alternative outcomes to events what ifs i Do when situation are negative or unusual ii Do after the eventoutcome iii Ex if I had been less demanding we wouldn t have broken up iv It is good because it helps us realize things could have been worse makes us feel better helps us prepare for future 4 Anchoring and Adiustment Heuris anchor using similar information as a reference and adjust based on that anchor a Common anchor self b Ex Judge how healthy roommate eats compared to you c Ex Prices textbook at store 200 anchor textbook at Amazon 50 adjusted your judgment 9 HOW DO WE CHOOSE WHAT SCHEMAS TO APPLY 1 Natural Contours the information itself a Ex You wouldn t apply your best friend schema to Starbucks cashier 2 Salience a Ex Only woman in a class b Ex Wearing sweat pants to formal event 3 Primacy initial expression effects how you interpret future information a Ex Introduce someone as a librarian vs as a fan of metal music 4 Priming used a schema recently more likely to use it again Social Psychology Brawley a EX Meet a librarian schema for bookworm then meet a new person who wears glasses 5 Importance if a judgment is important may use more schemas a EX Team member for group project 6 Individual Differences different people use different schemas have different schemas interept information different have different need for structureclosure 7 Goals organize information to fit our goals a EX Trying to decide about a new group member if you want to date somebody b Use different schemas for each goal WHEN DO WE USE SCHEMAS 0 m1 Process Model process information in two ways 0 Careful systematic processing I When outcomes depend on others I When you re responsiblehave to justify decision 0 Rapid heuristicsschema processing I When you have little time I When the information fits schemas I When you re not motivated to process information SCHEMAS IN ACTION 1 Confirmgtorv Hypothesis Testing seeking out information that confirms what you already believe a EX Half of participants told to find out if extroverted picked questions about being outgoing end thought person was extroverted 2 SelfFul lling Prophecy expectations create reality a EX Told male participants that a woman on phone was attractive or unattractive
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