Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes PSYCH 230-01
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisha Currier on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 230-01 at Washington State University taught by Nora Erikson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Psychology 230 Human Sexuality Chapter 6 Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Male Sexual and Reproductive System External Sex Organs The Penis 0 Contains the Urethra Carries urine and semen outside of the body 0 The penis is composed of three cylinders 0 Two Corpora Cavernosa on the upper sides of the penis 0 Corpus Spongiosum on the bottom and contains the urethra I Glans Penis O Conelike expansion at the end of corpus spongiosum 0 Contains I Corona I Frenulum I Urethral opening I Meatus 0 The Root 0 Enters just below the pubic bone and attached to the internal pelvic muscles 0 Erection 0 Can occur through sexual stimulation whether physically stimulated or mentally imaged 0 Also occurs throughout sleep The Scrotum 0 Located beneath the penis and contains the testicles O Semen needs a certain temperature which is lower than body temperature which is why the scrotum is located on the outside of the body 0 Regulates the temperature by I The skin on the scrotum contain many sweat glands which allow the sweat to cool down the testicles when it gets too warm I Cremaster muscle contracts and expands the scrotum to regulate temperature When it gets too hot it expands and when it gets too cold it contracts to warm up with body heat Male Sexual and Reproductive System Internal Sex Organs The Testicles I Serves two main functions Spermatogenesis and testosterone production I Spermatogenesis O Sperm is stored in seminiferous tubules 0 Development of the spermatozoon in the seminiferous tubules 1 Spermatogonium develops in the cells lining the outer walls 2 Sertoli cells secrete nutritional substances for the developing sperm 3 As spermatogonim grows it becomes a primary spermatocyte and then divides to form two secondary spermatocytes 4 The secondary spermatocytes divide into two spermatids 5 It then recognizes its nucleus to form a compact head The sperm also develops a midpiece and a agellum 0 It takes 72 days to form sperm 0 Testosterone Production 0 Produced in the testicles in the interstitial or Leydig cells 0 The Epididymis 0 Holds the immature sperm Once they are matured the epididymis pushes them into the vas deferens 0 The Ej aculatory Pathway O Vas deferens carries the sperm from the testicles mixes it with uids from other glands and pushes them toward the urethra for ejaculation I The three glands the sperm receives the uids are I Seminal vesicles 0 Prostate gland I Cowper s glands O The seminal vesicles secretions that provide nutrition for the sperm and make up about 6070 of the volume of ejaculations O The prostate gland are thought to aid the sperm in fertilizing the ovum O The Cowper s gland or bulbourethral glands produces a uid that cleans and lubricates the urethra for the sperm to pass through 0 Male ejaculate averages to two to five milliliters 50 to 150 million sperm per milliliter 0 The Breasts 0 Men s breasts seem to serve no function 0 Breast Disorders I 1 of all cases of breast cancer are men I Gynecomastia Breast Enlargement 0 Common in all stages of a man s life I Usually caused by hormonal issues various medications excessive weight marijuana use andor certain diseases Male Maturation Cvcle 0 Male Puberty 0 Boys at an average of ten years old will hit puberty 0 The Cycle of Male Hormones 39The hypothalamus begins releasing GnRH Gonadotropin releasing hormone 39Next the FSH Folliclestimulating hormone and LH Luteinizing Hormone are sent out 39These hormones travel to the testes where LH stimulates the production of testosterone which stimulates sperm production 0 Spermatogenesis begins at about 12 years old but ejaculation of mature sperm occurs about 1 to 15 years later 0 Andropause More so of a male version of menopause where their blood testosterone concentrations decrease 39There is an androgen replacement therapy that increases sexual interest and functioning 39The replacement therapy is commonly used in the US today Male Reproductive and Sexual Health 0 Disorders of the male reproductive system 0 Cryptorchidism undescended testes 39Most common genital disorder in boys 39Not sure why this occurs possibly environmental factors and exposure to certain chemicals 39Newbom boys may be given testosterone to help the testicle descend If that does not work at 6 months of age they will undergo surgery to relocate the testis to the scrotum 0 Testicular Torsion 39Twisting of testis on its spermatic cord 39Usually occurs with abnormal development of the spermatic cord or the membrane that covers the testicle 39Symptoms acute scrotal pain and swelling Medical Emergency 39A study showed that this disorder was common among men with a family history of this condition 0 Priapism 39Abnormally prolonged and painful erection that is not associated with sexual desire or excitement 39Blood trapped in the erectile tissue 39Unsure as to what causes this but men with certain conditions are at higher risk of getting it O Peyronie s Disease Painful curvature that makes penetration impossible Typically occurs between the ages of 45 and 60 IUnsure as to why this disorder occurs but possible causes include fibrous tissue buildup excessive calcium or trauma Inguinal Hernia 0 Is caused when the intestine pushes through the opening in the abdominal wall into the inguinal canal 0 Can occur during heavy lifting or straining 0 Symptoms include pain and possible blockage of the intestine Hydrocele 0 A condition where there is an excessive accumulation of uid within the tissue surrounding the testicle which causes a scrotal mass 0 Common and typically go away within a few months AnabolicAndrogenic Steroid Abuse 0 Used amongst athletes and nonathletes 0 Androgens are steroids naturally occurring in the body 0 It can cause a lot of damage to the body and its organs such as the liver and testicles and even bone structure 0 It can also affect mood and behavior such as the development of schizophrenia Cancers of the Male Reproductive Organs 0 Male Breast Cancer IAlthough rare there is a higher mortality rate among men than women IHereditary obesity hormonal issues and physical activity can increase the risk of breast cancer IThe presence of the BRCA genes can increase the risk of prostate cancer by double and breast cancer by seven times Penile Cancer ILesions on the penis must be checked out immediately I If caught early penile cancer is treatable O Testicular Cancer I Most common malignancy among men between the ages of 25 to 34 Early signs include painless testicular mass or harder consistency of the O testes Those with a family history increased height body size age at puberty and dairy consumptions are at a higher risk One of the most curable disease 0 Prostate Cancer I Most commonly found in men over the age of 50 1 in 6 will be diagnosed with this cancer and 1 in 36 will die from it Twice as common in black men as white men Unknown causes but those with a firstdegree relative who has prostate cancer is likely to have it as well Also there is a higher risk if the male has the BRCA gene Early signs lower back pelvic or upper thigh pain inability to urinate loss of force in the urinary stream urinary dribbling pain or burning during urination and frequent urination Men over the age of 50 are examined with digital rectal examinations 1986 Approved the prostatespecific antigen PSA to measure levels of molecules that are overproduced by prostate cancer cells through a blood test Treatment options include radiation radical prostatectomy the freeing of parts in the prostate cryosurgery drugs or waiting it out 0 As most men are likely to die of other causes at the age of the diagnosis some choose to leave the cancer alone
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