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by: Daniel Scovotti


Daniel Scovotti

Dr. Maleckar

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This is all of the Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions notes for Dr. Maleckar. Enjoy!
Dr. Maleckar
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Scovotti on Tuesday September 2, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Pittsburgh taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views.


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Date Created: 09/02/14
Chem 1 10 Fall 2014 Maleckar Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions I Progression of Ideas About Atoms 1 Democritus and Leucippus 5 century BC Ancient Greece Matter is composed of small invincible particles called atomos which means uncuttable 2 Aristotle and Plato Aristotle and Plato didn t agree and the idea was rejected for 2000 years 3 John Dalton 1766 1844 Self taught 13 Begin School at age 12 English Schoolteacher and Quaker Kept a diary of meteorological weather observations over 200000 entries Laid in state in Manchester 40000 people attended Dalton s Postulates Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms True Today All atoms of a given element are identical Not correct today He doesn t know about isotopes which gures out the amount of neutrons 1932 When the neutron was discovered Atoms of an element are not changed into a different type of element by chemical reactions atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions Not correct today You identify atoms by the amount of protons it has atomic number Nuclear Chemistry changed identity 9 Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms Correct Today Same ratio same make up 4 J J Thomson 1856 1940 Won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906 his son won the same in 1937 He discovered the electron in 1897 Performed Cathode Ray Experiments Proposed the Plum Pudding thought the electron looked like it model of an atom IEIIEEIIEI Thomson s Cathode Ray Experiments httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvO9Govscbazk Summary Thomson s Plum Pudding Model of the Atom Thought it was rum raisin ice cream 0 Overall atoms are neutral They re made up of positively charged matter with negatively charged electrons embedded throughout 5 R A Millikan 18681953 American Physicist Conducted the oil drop experiment 13339 Awarded the Nobel Prize in 1911 for determining the charge on an individual electron Thomson Milliken We can calculate the mass of a single electron 910 x 10quot 28 g 6 Ernest Rutherford 1871 1937 0 Research student for J J Thomson tried to figure out the atom with him 0 Won the Nobel Prize Physics in 1908 0 Used the gold foil test to develop a new model of an atom It changed the working model of an atom and what people thought of an atom Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment 0 In the lead box there is an alpha emitter 0 The nuclei are shedding pieces of themselves in attempt to be stable radioactive 0 Alpha emitter giving off particles that have a positive charge to them 0 If you put it in a lead block it prevents the alpha particles to get past the lead 0 But there is one whole inside the lead Pb block 0 The alpha emitter releases the particles and then you have a stream of positive particles 0 They pass through the electron cloud Gold Foil because those are occupying most of the space 0 They pass through and the particles hit the uorescent screen One of the two detectors on the other side since they hit the gold foil and go right through it 0 Then they are detected by one of the two detectors 0 If it hits the nucleus of the gold foil it de ects right back 0 Ernest Rutherford concludes that something in the nucleus is very dense and that s why the particles bounce sharply off of it and he does not use the idea of J J Thomson s Plum Pudding Model but instead tries to find out why the density of the nucleus causes the particles to bounce sharply off them The Neutron 0 Mass of electrons Mass of Protons DOES NOT EQUAL the atomic mass 0 1932 Sir James Chadwick 18911974 proved the existence of neutrons 0 Bombarded a sheet of Beryllium Be with alpha particles 0 It caused neutrons to be generated he showed they were neutral and had a mass similar to protons II The Parts of the Atom Charge Mass gamug Proton 1 1 0073 Neutron 0 1 0087 Electron 1 5534 X 10quot4 The Nucleus 0 Contains the protons and neutrons 0 Tiny 10quot 4 A Angstrom and the Whole atom is 15 A 0 Angstrom A number to the quot10 value 0 An atom is 100000 times larger than a nucleus 0 Nucleus Extremely dense l0quotl3 10quot4 gml 0 A matchbox full of nuclei would Weigh over 25 billion tons Protons and Neutrons 1 They make up almost none of the volume because they take up the nucleus 2 Make up about 12 of its mass each 3 Involved in nuclear reactions only Nucleus is the chemistry of protons and neutrons Electrons 1 Make up most of the volume of the atom cloud of ufi 2 Make up almost none of its mass 3 Very involved in the atom s reactions All atoms of an element have the same number of protons ex all carbon atoms have 6 protons We give atoms a name based on their Atomic Number If an atom is neutral then the number of Protons Electrons What about neutrons Fluctuates That s how you get isotopes An element can have the same amount of protons and same identity even if the atomic mass changes which means the amount of neutrons changes III Abbreviations Atomic number Z Subscript Number of Protons Number from the periodic table Mass number A Superscript top number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons 5224CI E protons Q neutrons E electrons Neutral so 24 electrons 23 1 1Na gprotons Qneutrons Q electrons 1 charge Has 1 lost electron So 111 10 electrons 19 9F 9 protons 10 neutrons 10 electrons 1 Charge Has 1 gained electron So 91 10 electrons IV Isotopes Definition Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons 24Mg 2398504 gmole 12 Protons 12 Electrons 12 Neutrons 7899 25Mg 2498584 gmole 12 Protons 12 Electrons 13 Neutrons 1000 26Mg 2598259 gmole 12 Protons 12 Electrons 14 Neutrons 11001 Percent comes from the percentage of these samples existing on the planet Q What is the average atomic mass of Mg A 23985047899 2498584010 259825901101 243060 gmole 2431 gmole on the Periodic Table Average atomic mass gmolepercentage in a decimal same same V Dmitri Mendeleev 1834 1907 Claim to fame IA He organized the periodic table in 1861 Predicted problems of molecular Weights that We found later to be true He proposed the modem periodic table Organized by increasing atomic number Remember Atomic Number Number of Protons which wasn t discovered yet for another 4050 years Columns are also called Groups Elements that are in the same group column often exhibit similar properties Rows signify an additional Valence shell a T EA 3An39 lA5 L h TA Lanthanides A1tiniu1es Blue Metals Yellow NonMetals Pink Metalloids Group Names of the Periodic Table Group 1A Alkali Metals Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7A Halogens Group SA Noble Gases Groups 3B 2B Transition Metals Atoms 5770 Lanthanides Atoms 89102 Actinides Periodic Table Table Eold Q Eilo Eit Eiow Eerio group Ioolo it oI39I elo 1511 51 on llelloll aellellxllmnllell wlllI l uFiewringAtnn1ir weight 1 E U Eu1V LZE ZjjZE l jZ l 3kai Metal 5otinidE3 2 Alkali Earth LanthanidE23 I 1Etal Nonmetal Trano Mot Halogen 3 NolIo GEE B TIquot 8 9 Lanthanide Series Flrtinirle Series Copyright 395 39EIEI39 1 EIEI Sh1 Corporation For Help D1333 F1 HUM FIE39139D Amedeo Avogardo 1776 1856 0 Italian Savant 0 He did Fundamental Basic Research 0 Resolved the difference between atoms molecules and gases 0 He is most noted for contributions in the theory of molarity molecular weight and AVogadro s law 0 People felt that he didn t get enough recognition when he was alive The Mole A unit of counting like the dozen 1 dozen 12 somethings 1 gross 144 somethings 144 pencils 1 ream of paper 500 somethings 500 sheets of paper 1 mole 602 X 1023 AVogadro s number atomsmoleculesionswhatevers Spreading 1 mole of marbles over the Earth would produce a layer about 3 miles thick Q How many atoms are in 518g of P A 518 g X mole 6022 X 10quot23 101 X 10quot23 atoms 3097 g 1 mole Q A pure titanium cube has an edge length of 278 inches How many Ti atoms does it contain d 450 gcm3 A 278 in X 254 cm 70612 cm 1 in Volume V 70612 cmquot3 35207528 cmquot3 35207528 cmquot3 X 450g mole 6022 X 1A23 199 X 10quot25 atoms cmquot3 4787 g 1 mole Q Two samples of carbon tetrachloride CCI4 were decomposed into their constituent elements One sample produced 389g of C and 448g of C1 The other sample produced 148g of C and 134g of Cl Are these results consistent with the law of definite proportions Law of definitemultiple proportions When two elements form more than one compound the masses of one element in these compounds for a fiXed mass of the other element are in ratios of small Whole numbers Sam le 2 Or in moles What is an Ion Definition An atom that has a charge or due to the gainloss of electrons Cations An atom that has lose an electrons and formed a positivelycharged ion 0 Example Na 9 Naquot 0 Ca 9 Caquot2 Anions An atom that has gained an electrons and formed a negativelycharged ion 0 Example C1 9C1 o O 9 0392 How many electrons will an atom gainlose Answer Atoms tend to gainlose electrons to form ions that have the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas What types of elements form cations Answer Metals Predictable Cations Group 1A Alkali Metals tends to form a l cation Group 2A Alkali Earth Metals tends to form a 2 cation Aluminum tends to form a 3 cation What about the Transition metals 0 All other metals left to the staircase metalloids are less predictable What types of elements form anions Answer Non Metals Predictable Anions Group 7A tends to form a 1 anion Example Br 9 Br Group 6A tends to form a 2 anion Example 0 9 0392 Nitrogen N tends to form a Q anion N forms Nquot3 Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds Ionic Bonds Metal and Non Metal CoValent Bonds 0 Cation and an Anion All non metals 0 KBr or Fe2SO4 Co2 or PCl5 0 NH42CO3 C8H18 H2SO4 H2 has a 2 charge which means S04 has a 2 charge Determining Oxidation Numbers from a Formula FeSO4 Fe2SO4 Fe2SO43 Fe2SO4 1 12 Fe2SO4 A 1 Fe2g S0413 E 13 CuNO32 Zn3PO42 K2Cr2O7 1 A Ki2 Total 1 ZLW Cations That You Need to Know 0 All of the Group 1A and Group 2A Cations and Aluminum Al 0 NH4 ammonium ion 0 Just use the whole name K Potassium Li Lithium Caquot2 Calcium Anions That You Need to Know uoride iodide oxide sulfide carbonate nitrate sulfate phosphate chromate permanganate perchlorate chlorite thiocyanate Cl Br N3 P3 OH N02 SO32 C2H3 O2 Cr2O7239 CN39 C103 C10quot of Creating Neutral Ionic Compounds 0 There doesn t need to be a charge of the metal in Roman numerals chloride bromide nitride phosphide hydroxide nitrite sulfite acetate dichromate cyanide chlorate hypochlorite peroxide 0 Name Cation Anion K amp Br Answer 1 Cu amp Cl 0 Answer CuCl2 NH4 amp C032 39 A SWer NH42CO3 Ca amp phosphate 0 Ca3 PO42 Naming Ionic Compounds Ionic Compounds Metal Nonmetal Case I The metal isn t a transition metal CaCl2 0 Calcium Chloride Csl 0 Cesium Iodide A1203 0 Aluminum Oxide Note No mention of the quantity of atoms in the molecules or the charge on any of the atoms It is assumed that you have the necessary amount of atoms to make the compound neutral in charge Case II The metal IS a transition metal 0 The name needs to contain the charge of the metal in Roman numerals 0 Name Cation Anion CuSO4 0 Copper 11 Sulfate Cu2SO4 0 Copper 1 Sulfate NH4OH o Ammonium Hydroxide FeCN2 0 Iron 11 Cynaide K2CrO4 0 Potassium Chromate Naming Binarv Nonmetals Which element comes first in the formula 0 The element with the more metallic character appears first in the formula the one further to the left in the periodic table 0 Use pre xes to describe the of atoms present Prefixes 1 mono 6 hexa 2 di 7 hepta 3 tri 8 octa 4 tetra 9 nona 5 penta 6 hexa 10 deca N203 o Dinitrogen Trioxide CO 0 Carbon Monoxide P205 0 Diphosphorus Pentoxide Drop the a in Penta SF6 0 Sulfur Hexa uoride Naming Oxvacids 0 Acid form HaXbOc 0 Anion XbOcquota Anion Suffix Acid Suffix 0 ite ous 0 ate ic Anion Names Acid Names C10 Hypochlorite HCIO Hypochlorous Acid C102 Chlorite C103 Chlorate C104 Perchlorate More Examples C032 Carbonate PO43 Phosphate NO3 N1trate N02quot Nitrite so Sulfate SO32quot Sulfite Naming Hvdrates What is a hydrate HCIO2 Chlorous Acid HCIO3 Chlorid Acid HC1O4PeI Chl0l id Acid H2CO3 Carbonic Acid H3PO4 Phosphorid Acid HNO3 HNO2 H2SO4 H2SO3 Nitric Acid Nitrous Acid Sulfuric Acid Sulfurous Acid o A compound that contains water molecules weakly bound in its crystals MgSO4 0 7H2O 0 Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate CuSO4 0 5H2O 0 Copper 11 Sulfate Pentahydrate CaSO4 0 2H2O 0 Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate Exceptions HC1 Hydrochloric Acid HBr Hydrobromic Acid HI Hydroiodic Acid HF Hydro uoric Acid HCN Hydrocyanic Acid H2S Hydrogen Sulfide H2Se Hydrogen Selenide H2Te Hydrogen Telluride 0 They only have 1 H M metal complex so no mono necessary Exceptions With H BZH6 Diborane PH3 Phosphine SiH4 Silane H20 Water NH3 Ammonia H2S Hydorgen Sulfide


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