Lead Up to the American Revolution
Lead Up to the American Revolution HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Lead Up to the American Revolution 0 In the mid1700s a colonial revolution against Great Britain seemed unlikely o Colonists in the 13 colonies felt a strong tie to Britain and British culture 0 They were proud to identify as British and be a part of the British empire French and Indian War 17541763 0 British nationalism in the colonies was high 0 Started over a dispute about territoryland ownership between the British and French 0 1754 George Washington leads the Virginia militia to ambush the French 0 Ambush was a failure and Washington and militia were captured 0 This battle was the first of the war I Conflict between the British and French spread to Europe were the war was known as the Seven Years War 0 French allied with Native Americas 0 British allied with colonists who were more than willing to enlist and help their mother country 0 1759 British defeated the French and captured Quebec 0 British General Wolfe was killed gt became a martyr for the British cause 0 1763 Treaty of Paris 0 Britain gains N America east of Mississippi River Florida and New France Quebec 0 The war also manifested itself in Asia I East India Company British trade company fought against piratesFrench navy I Acted as a military surrogate as it took on a military role by fighting the French 0 EIC conquered Bengal gt stocks increase and profit booms 0 Question gt could a company like the EIC take over land I British crown gave EIC right to control Bengal and a loan of 400000 pounds 0 1765 HMS Victory was commissioned and set sail 0 Display of British victory and power 0 Postwar concern within Britain about expanding empire 0 Britain prided itself of having an empire built by trade rather than conquest like Spain I Like to claim its empire was built upon liberty I Problem new territorial acquisition after the war was contradictory to this claim of built by liberty 0 Effects of the war 0 British debt skyrocketed gt question of how to deal with the debt where to get S 0 Changes in imperial policies I Colonial policy changes I Peacetime army in the colonies I Impose strict borders I Send out surveyors to establish boundaries and make maps I Direct rule over new subjects in Quebec Native American land and Bengal 0 Direct rule vs letting those people have selfrule o Postwar in the colonies o Colonists felt they should take over land gained by the Treaty of Paris I Colonists wanted to expand into the Ohio River Valley 0 Issue land control and Proclamation Line of 1763 I Colonists moving westward would put them at odds with Natives which could lead to another war that Britain could not want nor could finance Pontiac s War 17631764 0 Pontiac Ottawa chief in Ohio region 0 Native Americans vs British 0 Unlike the French the British didn t acknowledge Native s customs when it came to trade and interaction and diplomacy 0 Bad relations developed which led to war 0 Biological warfare used gt British gave Natives smallpoxinfested blankets 0 Britain won 0 Post war Britain adopts a more French model of relations wNatives o Tries to practiceacknowledge certain customs and rituals of the Natives when conducting business Proclamation Line of 1763 0 Created as a dividing line along the frontier between Native American land and 13 colonies 0 Goal prevent colonies from settling west of the Appalachian Mtns 0 But Britain was unable to stop the flow to illegal crossing to the frontier land 13 Colonies 0 After the French and Indian War the colonists wanted a more decentralized colonial govt o Colonists wanted more autonomy Crown having less direct control over them 0 1754 colonial assembly convenes at Albany 0 Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson propose the quotAlbany Plan I Type of government where the colonies would govern themselves I Would have a colonial Parliament that was coequal with the British Parliament I Plan was defeated by the colonists 0 Main question howwhere do the colonies fit into the British empire 0 Stamp Act 0 Pass in March 1765 set to go into effect in November 1765 0 Internal tax on paper items I Paper items had to be printed on a special paper that had a stamp on it I Goal was for Britain to make money off of the tax to pay off its war debt and pay its soldiers 0 Question gt can Parliament levy an internal tax for the sole purpose of profit I Parliament had the right to levy trade taxes on exportsimports but an internal tax for the purpose of profit was something new I Colonists claimed that only they could tax themselves 0 e Parliament did not have the right to levy a direct tax on the colonists 0 Who effectively governs the colonies King Parliament Colonists I Parliament used the idea of quotKinginParliament to support their claim to tax the colonies I Colonists supported the King as the only legitimate power to govern them 0 Saw King as a separate entity from Parliament and that power resided with him and not Parliament 0 Virginia Resolves 0 Led by Patrick Henry 0 Set of resolutions declaring the Stamp Act unconstitutionalunjust 0 Stamp Act Congress formed and adopted the VA Resolves o Wrote a petition to King George III saying that he had power over the colonies not Parliament 0 Sons of Liberty 0 AntiStamp Act group that used mob violence to terrorize tax collectors 0 Stamp Act was repealed but Declaratory Act passed 0 Dec Act said that Parliament had the right to tax the colonists o 1767 Townsend Duties gt tax on imports o Colonists boycott all British trade 0 Townsend Duties repealed except for tax on tea gt trade wBritain resumes o 1770 Boston Massacre 0 British soldiers and citizens in Boston clashed gt 5 colonists killed 0 1772 East India Company experienced profit losses and large debt 0 To save the EIC Parliament exempted it from the tea tax in the colonies o Colonists upset that EIC was given a monopoly over the tea trade in the colonies o Colonists created a plan to prevent tea from entering the colonial market I Boston Tea Party gt dump imported EIC tea into the Boston Harbor Dec 1773 o PostBoston Tea Party passage of the Coercive or Intolerable Acts 0 Boston Port Act gt closed the Boston port 0 Administration ofJustice Act gt British people could only be tried in British counts not colonial courts 0 Quartering Act gt colonist could be forced to house British soldiers 0 Quebec Act gt special treatment to French Catholics and changed the borders of Quebec to encompass more of the Ohio Valley region 0 Massachusetts Government Act gt Mass to be ruled directly by the British took colonial government power away from the colonists o In response to the Coercive Acts the Continental Congress was formed 0 Advocated nonimportation with Britain 0 Joseph Gallaway presented a new colonial government plan that was similar to the Albany Plan as it advocated the establishment of a colonial Parliament that was coequal to the British Parliament Called for the colonies to arm themselves and create weaponry storehouses Congress sent a petition to King George III I Asked him to repeal the Coercive Acts I Said that the King had the power to defy Parliament and do what he thought was right 0 Under Massachusetts Government Act Massachusetts was put under the control of British General Gage 0 Requests more British troops as the colonists became unruly 0 Was a sign that royal control over the colonies was disintegrating 0 British soldiers began targeting leaders of the antiBritish movement 0 Targeted people like John Hancock and John Adams Patriots 0 In April of 1775 British soldiers march to a colonial weapon storehouse 0 Fighting between the British and colonial militia Battles at Lexington and Concord 0 Second Continental Congress formed 1775 0 Olive Branch Petition gt blame issues in the colonies on Parliament not the King I Written by John Dickerson 0 Created a Continental Army with George Washington as the leader 0 King George III rejects the OBP and declares the colonies in a state of rebellion 0 Declaration of Independence written 0 Final rupture of ties with Britain lead to the emergence of a truly American identity Key words 0 French and Indian WarSeven Years War 0 George Washington 0 John Wolfe 0 East India Company 0 HMS Victory 0 Colonial Secretary 0 Proclamation of 1763 o Pontiac s War 0 Benjamin Franklin 0 Thomas Hutchinson 0 Albany Plan 0 George Grenville 0 Stamp Act 0 Virginia Resolves 0 Patrick Henry 0 Sons of Liberty 0 Declaratory Act Tea Act Boston Tea Party IntolerableCoercive Acts Continental Congress Olive Branch Petition Declaration of Independence