Sociology of Gender
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Date Created: 09/02/14
Women Men amp Society Chapter 1 Studying Gender An Overview 0 We describe oneself as man or woman I More than just sex I Determines behaviorpersonality 0 Promotes stereotypes I Women I Can wear slacks and dresses I They are emotional I Involved with romancerelationshipsappearance I Not good with mechanics I Wear only slacks I Assertive I Ambitiouscompetitive I Involved with studies work sports I Mechanically inclined 0 Sex maleness or femaleness I Basis for gender social category I Masculinityfemininity 0 Stereotypes barely describe people 0 Most people believe them and act accordingly I Promotes inequality between men and women 0 Stereotype oversimplified summary description of a group of people 0 Gender stereotypes simplistic descriptions of masculine mae feminine female I A incusive every person of the gender conforms to the stereotype 0 Most people don39t conform which can be seen as bad or good 0 Bipolar terms I Man can39t be feminine vice versa 0 Gender structure differentiates opportunities of men and women constrains them based on sex category Developed by Risman I Individual level I Shapes personalities gt gendered selves I Cultural level I Interacting everyday I Different cultural expectations I Institutional level I Affects society as a whole I Resourcesrewards 0 Society makes traits behaviors patterns of social interaction based on sex I Embedded in institutions work government school etc 0 Social stratification extent to which women and men and traitsbehaviors are unequally valued I Women are paid less seen as caregivers 0 Patriarchy men dominate women I Not always universal 0 Individual beliefs cannot change higher level beliefs Sociological Perspectives on Gender 0 Sociology scientific study of human societies and cultures and of social behaviors 0 Topics aren39t always researched the same way 0 Paradigm school of thought that guides scientists in choosing the problem to be studied in selecting methods to study and explain what is found 0 Sociology has multiple paradigms 0 Usually one paradigm dominates because it best explains the issue Structural Functionalism 0 Structural Functionalism paradigm society is a stable orderly system majority of members share common valuebeliefsbehavioral expectations societal consensus 0 Interrelated parts that operate together to keep balance equilibrium I Change must come slowly 0 Structural Functionalism view of Gender I Men and women are physically different I Men biggerstronger economic provider I Women have kids homemaker I Because of these differences men should be left out of the home process because they didn39t give birth 0 Gender roles behaviors that are prescribed for society39s members based on sex 0 Women reproduce society by teaching their children what the norm is which makes men the leaders of the families Evaluating Structural Functionalism 0 Gender differences are natural 0 The way women and men act is in their nature biologically determined 0 They are opposites I Trying to fix this will cause harm 0 The differences justify inequalitydiscrimination 0 Gender roles are learned 0 Femalemale roles are complimentary 0 Power ability to impose will on others A Paradigm Revolution 0 Structural functionalism orderly system couldn39t explain society anymore 0 Paradigm revolution members of a scientific discipline reject the dominant paradigm in favor of a competing paradigm that is better able to explain prevailing conditions 0 What caused the revolution 0 19605 social activismprotest I Vietnam war was focus I Other concerns included inequality in America 0 Poverty and malnutrition 0 Civil rights movement 0 Women39s liberation movement 0 No more social consensus o Struggle between haves and have nots power relations 0 Feminism emerged A Feminist Sociology of Gender 0 Diverse belief 0 Feminist paradigm nature and learning in acquisition of gender 0 Impossible to separate the two I Environment affects biological structures Gender is socially created 0 Set of social expectations I Fundamental to our personalities o Generated from politicseconomics Sexism differential valuing of one sex Sociological research the was conducted was based on men o Studies were done using men then applied to society as a whole o Women were compared to the men level so they were seem unequal because they didn39t match up 0 Gender was only important in studies including women like marriage I Only studied places were men were found unless they were studying topics like marriage 0 Studies focused on finding deficiencies in women speech I Men39s speech is considered normal while women39s was not Q Only male study of society 0 Feminist research gender is central to understanding other social relations I Try to find similaritiesdifference in both genders I Holistic view of society because men and women encounter different opportunities and constraints based on different locations in social structure I Do not exclude men but include women I Empathetic stance allow subjects to express themselves instead of enforcing the researchers ideas onto them I Can be seen as partial but it is intentional o Research is subjective and objective feminists find a happy medium I Research can39t be unbiased 0 It can be used to determine how facts are practical in society I Goal is still the collection of facts 0 Main goal of feminist research is to see how social constructions sexism affects men and women 0 Most men benefit from patriarchal society even though not all of them have power o Power is actually held by rich white heterosexual men because they set up the nation I Because of this poor people people of color and sexual minorities are all negatively affected 0 Sexism isn39t the same for all groups of women and men o Discrimination is worsened based on sexism racism classism ageism heterosexism and ableism intersecting inequalities 0 Feminists are advocates for social change o Get rid of gender inequality I Group consciousness problems are shared 0 Change is limited to individual level until this happens o Change is recognized by more than just the individual 0 Institution has to be blamed not the person 0 Social movement a group that promotes particular cause 0 Feminist movement o Made people realize inequality o Many people worked together for change Feminism in a Historical Perspective The First Wave of Feminism 0 Feminism was not just about voting 0 Goes back farther than 18301920 o Found findings from Middle Ages I Fragments of women39s history because women39s writings were not including in historical record 0 Men had to the power to define what was important o Later women could not know about earlier women39s efforts I Delays feminist consciousness group consciousness that they agree about inequality and that they can fix it 0 1700s o Judith Sargent Murray and Mary Wollstonecraft called for equality o Middle and upper class men were saying that all humans are equal I Only applied to white men though 0 1800s o Women had more education but still less jobs o Could study philanthropy while at home knitting or could volunteer to fulfill their educational desires 0 Other minorities thought the feminist movement was insignificant o Equal on their own level I Blacks were all enslaved equally 0 Upper class wanted job equality o Hard to gain support 0 Lower class wanted different treatment from men not the same 0 Attraction to the movement came from women in the antislavery movement o They had skills but interests were local and diverse o The abolitionist movement provided a framework for understanding their inequality I Bad treatment by abolitionist men played a part 0 Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton o Held their own conference in US on women and antislavery I More conferences 0 Seneca Falls official start of women39s right to vote o Declaration of Sentiments o 12 resolutions I Support of equality I Opposition to laws the restrain women I Some women didn39t like the idea of voting could jeopardize the movement eventually accepted 0 Voting became prominent after the war 0 Issues before the war o Dress code o Divorce laws o Custody laws o Property rights o Right to control earnings 0 Feminism went down during the war because there was more effort for the war o Thought that they would get the right to vote if they helped I Susan B Anthony disagreed I Anthony was right they didn39t get the right the word sex was excluding from 14th and 15th amendments 0 Feminism after the war started in Kansas o People supported black vote but not women o Democrats supported women because they were racist hoped to beat the Blacks o Because Republicans supported blacks and Democrats supported women disagreements formed between women I Different associations formed 0 American Woman Suffrage Association o Voting for women and blacks 0 National Women Suffrage Association o Many causes including voting o Led by Stanton o Promoted free love and Marxism I Looks like antifamily and anti America 0 National American Woman Suffrage Association o Merge of the two o Do anything to get support o Some women thought they deserved the right to vote because all people should rule themselves o While others thought giving the women the right to vote would purify politics I Add nurture to politics 0 Give them moral superiors to men o Took advantage of their anti immigrant sentiment and racism 0 Charlotte Perkins Gilman o Mobilized working class women men immigrants I Power in numbers if women voted too 0 Black women clubs prepared women for voting o Looked for gender equality and race progression 0 Black women were excluded from white women voting organizations 0 Mainstream feminism was mainly for white upper class women 0 Women voting started in the West in the 1890s 0 More protest o NAWSA o Alice Paul39s National Women39s Party 0 Need WWI to get voting o Participated in the war o Active feminism too 0 August 29 1920 women voting 19th amendment 0 Voting o Didn39t vote often o Voted the same as men 0 After voting o Lost support because they thought equality was won Cult of domesticity came back Feminism died down Femininity was on the rise instead Small groups of women tried to get into political power I National Federation of Business and Professional Women39s Club I National Association of Women Lawyers I American Medical Woman39s Association O O O O The Second Wave of Feminism 0 The rise of feminism was caused by o The Feminine Mystique I Women were bored because personal growth stunted I Put family first felt empty I Made it known that it is a social problem I Paved the way for sexual politics examination of gender inequality rooted in public and at home o JFK I President commission on the status of women 0 Tried to calm down women clubs who wanted the Equal Rights Amendment o Equal Pay Act 1963 o 2 federal committees on women39s issues o State level commissions I Gave out info on women39s issues I National Organization for Women 0 Betty Friedan 0 1966 0 Led to other groups 0 Coege based feminism o Active in other social movements war and civil rights o Worked alongside man dominated movement I Struck by sexism I Analyzed their status and tried to end it 0 Attracted women who felt discriminated especially lesbians o Felt safer could be visible and active o They criticized straight relationships I Straight people felt threatened thought that lesbians would make the movement not legitimate 0 Caused the straightlesbian split Contemporary Feminisms 0 Gender reform feminism theories by Lorber 0 Focus on similarities between men and women 0 Same opportunities as men based on personal choices o Four types of them I Liberal 0 Same legal rights I Marxist 0 Oppression caused by economic dependence need better wages and conditions I Socialist 0 Oppression caused by economic dependence need better wages and conditions I Development 0 Improve work and education in developing countries while operating within constraints 0 Gender resistance feminism o Legal rights can39t end inequality male dominance is too ingrained Women39s ideas are different from men39s Encouraged to form their own groups Theory resists the social order but does nothing to change society Categories I Radical 0 Sexual exploitation o Violence of men against women O O O O I Lesbian 0 Sexual exploitation o Violence of men against women I Psychoanalytic 0 Gender inequality based on sex differences in personality development I Standpoint 0 Examine life from women39s standpoint 0 Gender rebeion feminism o Third wave feminists I Major break in the way sexgender are conceptualized o Interrelationships among inequalities of gender race social class sexual orientation o Gender is one piece of complex system of social stratification 0 Includes all feminisms I Multiracial 0 Social location determines privilege or disadvantage of men and women in different ways I Men39s 0 Social location determines privilege or disadvantage of men and women in different ways I Social construction 0 Identities based on interactions I Postmodern and queer theory 0 Gender scripts make them fit the situation 0 Gender fluid 0 Diversity between different feminisms causes problems o Become separated and hardened against each other o Each has own sense of identity The Future of Feminism Young Women and Women of Color 0 Feminism lost support because it is thought to be bad 0 No longer necessary because they have the freedom they want 0 What women actually think o Still discrimination o No negative views of movement o Still reluctant to identify 0 Media is major source of negative thoughts 0 1990s increased support because of o Abortion restrictions Sexual harassment cases Sexual assault AIDS Murder trials o Loss of affirmative action 0 Want to bring about change 0 Young feminists are concerned about inclusion o Work to address race social status homophobia sexism o Contributes to continued life of feminism 0 Women of color are more likely to identify as feminists 0 Women of color face sexism racism and poverty o Identify better with men of color o Think that white women are after power that supports racism replace the men o Want to attack forced sterilization bad housing degrading welfare Women of color provide different insights to feminism O O O O Box 11 Early Feminists 0 Feminists were involved in other reforms o Public healthhygiene o Moral uplift o Abolition O Public education Elizabeth Blackwell 18211910 O OOOOO First female physician in US Rejected marriage for career in medicine Practiced for a short time Moved to hospital administration Moved to public health Implemented public sanitation reforms I Improved health and living conditions for the poor working class racialethnic minorities and immigrants Charlotte Perkins Gilman 18601935 O Intellectual leader in the first wave professional writer social critic journalist pubhcspeake Wrote about sex difference social evolution women and work and child development Advocated for change in child carehousework to relieve women who worked outside of home I Wanted everyday changes not legal changes Margaret Sanger 18791969 O O O Wanted birth control Women needed to control their bodies by controlling pregnancy Also supported improved employment and living conditions for working class Maria w Stewart 18031879 Orphan lived with white clergyman until 15 First black woman to deliver public lecture in US Encouraged women to educate themselves and strengthen talents Defended women39s right to speak in public Became a teacheropened a school in DC Sojourner Truth 17971883 O Ida OOOOWOOO O Born a slave When freed she travelled as a preacher Advocated abolition protectionassistance to poor equal rights for women Supported the war movement WellsBarnett 18621931 Daughter of slaves Crusader against lynching Her writing and public speaking led the campaign to end it Educated women before elections Ran for senator but lost to black man Frances Willard 18391898 O O Founder and early president of the Women39s Christian Temperance Society Campaigned for laws regulating alcohol o Motivated by women and children who were abused by intoxicated husbandsfathers 0 Victoria Claflin Woodhull 18381927 o First wave Free love First woman to operate a Wall Street brokerage firm First woman to address Congress Frist American woman to run for president even though women couldn39t vote and she was below the age requirement O O O O Box 12 Feminism in Great Britain and Western Europe 0 Enlightenment is seen as the starter even though philosophers were against equal rights 0 Ideas of Enlightenment influences feminist ideals o Mary Wollstonecraft I A Vindication of the Rights of Woman 0 Denounced male authority 0 Called for education of women so they can be free 0 French Revolution and liberalism contributed to feminism in Great Britain o Women were active protestors o Olympe de Georges I Full political and economic rights of women o John Stewart Mill one ofthe few male supporters of women I The Subjection of Women 0 Removing legal barrier to gain equal rights o August BebelFrederich Engels I Critiqued women in family under capitalism I Thought they should join the socialist movement to get emancipation 0 Feminists in GB and Western Europe o Issues I Protection of womenchildren from abuse I Exploitation of women by prostitution I Divorce I Property laws I Education I Voting o Celebrated women39s difference from men Critiqued society rather than trying to get women accepted into it o Participated in international feminist organizations I International Council of Women I International Women39s Suffrage Alliance I Socialist Women39s International o Struggles depended on location in country o War and political conservatism suppressed feminism O o Resurgence of feminism in 1960s70s I Still felt dissatisfaction even though they have legal rights 0 Gave rise to new groups o Diverse ideals and goals Box 13 Men Masculinity and Feminism 0 Thought that masculinity and feminism aren39t compatible because masculinity oppresses women 0 Not true because some men don39t benefit from patriarchal society o Death from diseases and homicide are related to masculine norms o Societal resources available to men depend on race class age physical ability and sexual orientation 0 Educated white men began to talk about how masculinity influenced their lives o Gender norms limited them I Men39s liberation 0 Two branches o Maleidentified I Men39s rights groups I Male privilege is illusion I Women are advantaged I Believe that women 0 Seduce and accuse them of false rape 0 Denied custody of children after divorce 0 Accused of sexually assaulting children I Regardless men still have to provide for family I Feminism has made situation for men worse I Antifeminist I Faith groups have emerged I Want to be head of household o Femaleidentified I Profeminist men I Examine relationship with women and one another to determine dominancesubordination 0 Rooted in o Gender o Race o C ass o Sexual orientation I Necessary to reform the institution not individual 0 Accomplish this by not being sexist and giving up privileges I Developed workshops on 0 Homophobia 0 Harmful effect of porn 0 Causesconsequences of sexual violence 0 Alliance between women and men is necessary for change Box 14 Feminism in Developing and Undeveloped Countries 0 Third World feminism 0 Feminism is scarce historically 0 Feminism is historically lumped together with liberation from Western imperialismpolitical dictatorships 0 Much more is known about contemporary feminism o Survival is more important than to win rights for women o Many men are also oppressed because of racism imperialism and class o Western feminism is seen as separatist because in developing countries men and women are both discriminated against o Women face discrimination because of racism economics and patriarchy I Double deprivation deprivation of living in a poor country and deprivation because they are women I Girl education 0 Encouraged to go to school but still face obstacles o Drop out by 5quot or 6quot grade I Encouraged to marry I Sexual harassment when they reach puberty I Girls on their period are considered unclean and can39t use the same toilets 0 Most schools don39t have clean private toilets or water for washing hands I Reproductive Freedom 0 Can mean access to birth control in countries that expect them to bear a lot of children 0 Can also mean forced use of birth control to keep them from gaining status and material security when they have children 0 Reproductive freedom is the right to have children o Right to give birth healthy babies o Right to decide who you have sex with I Women are victims of sex tourism mailorder brides prostitution o Right to protect from STDs 0 Women in western societies can39t generalize all differences
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