Ch 4 Notes- Social Psychology
Ch 4 Notes- Social Psychology PSYC 3520
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3520 at Clemson University taught by Alice Brawley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Social Psychology Brawley Chapter 4 The Self 0 SelfConcep set of beliefs you hold about you are what you re like 0 SelfEsteem how you value yourself 0 2 dimensions 39 SelfLiking whether you like yourself 39 SelfCompetence whether you re a capable person 0 General self esteem 0 Specific self esteem I EX I don t like my hair specific WHERE DOES SELFCONCEPT COME FROM 1 Socialization includes family and friends how we learn what is important a EX Sports church music 2 Re ected Appraisals reactions other people have to us a Sort of like selffulfilling prophecy b Indirect feedback about yourself c EX Mom laughed at my jokes 3 Feedback From Others people directly tell you something about yourself a Direct feedback b EX Mom said I am funny 4 SelfPercention observing ourselves doing something consistently then referring we must like that thing a EX Have a lot of striped shirts must like striped clothes 5 Labeling Arousal States respond to something then we recognize our emotions after the fact a Do when we are not sure how we feel b EX I must be stressed out 6 Environmental Distinctiveness tend to focus on things about ourselves that makes us stand out in a situation a EX Being only college student at home with family b Sounds like salience stand out unusual 7 Social Comparison assess out self and selfconcept compared to other people or to ourselves in the past a EX I value cleanliness more than my roommate b EX I m better at parking now than when I got first got my license 8 Social Identity membership in social groups a EX Family work church teams race gender social class b Born into some groups selected for you c Later on self your own group d SelfStereotyping believe you re a part of a certain group leads you to believe you have characteristics of that group Social Psychology Brawley SELFCONCEPT amp CULTURE 0 Selfconcept differs across cultures 0 Western culture tendency to have independent selfconcept US Europe 0 Eastern culture tend to have interdependent selfconcept Asian countries see themselves more similar to others SELFSCHEMAS how you think about yourself along different dimensions 0 Ex If a certain dimension doesn t matter to you a schematic 0 Were schematic on a dimension when 0 Important to use 0 Makes us distinct 0 When we re extreme on it 0 When we re sure the opposite isn t true 0 Can have possible selves schema of who you might become in the future what do you want to be when you grow up 0 Selfschemas help us direct our behavior SELFREGULATION controlling and directing your behavior 1 Working SelfConcept most salient about you in a particular situation a Ex Situation social psychology class most salient student b Important because it guides behavior 2 SelfComplexitv number of dimensions you use to think about yourself a Use a lot of dimension more complex selfconcept b Ex Low complexity I m only a grad student c Ex High complexity college student employee friend d If you have a setback more complex selfconcept allows recovery 3 SelfEfficacy specific beliefs about our ability to accomplish specific tasks a Ex I m a good cook vs I m a nice person b Like specific selfcompetency c Affects whether you even try to do something i I m a good cook I ll try making something new 4 Behavioral ActivationInhibition a Activation doingapproaching something i Ex Trying to make 55 goals b Inhibition not doing somethingavoiding something i Ex Trying to miss 15 goals Social Psychology Brawley 5 SelfAwgreness paying attention to yourself a More selfaware when i Look in a mirror picture giving speech evaluated minority in a group b Adjust to some standards c vaernetjc Theorv of SelfRegulation i Judge to meet standard ii If didn t meet standard adjust iii Stops when 1 Meet standard 2 You give up iv 2 types 1 Public SelfConsciousness how you look to other people 2 Private SelfConsciousness how you feel about yourself ACCURATE amp CONSITENT I SelfVerificgtion seeking out behaviors or situation that confirm what we think about ourselves 0 Ex Wear clothes that confirm selfconcept post on Facebook 0 Avoid behaviors or situations that don t confirm what we think about yourself I EX Avoid public workout workout at home to maintain selfconcept because not athletic I SelfEnhancement hold a positive view of yourself 0 When selfworth is threatened O SelfAf rmation Theory when selfworth is threatened we verify another aspect of ourselves I EX Find out not so athletic focus on being a good student 0 SelfEvaluation Mgintengnce Theorv when someone achieves something important to your our selfconcept is threatened and we feel envious uncomfortable I EX Roommate graduates early might feel selfconcept tis threatened feel envy I 3 conditions 0 More truelikely to happen when person is close 0 More truelikely when extremely close 0 Less truelikely when goalachievement isn t important to you Social Psychology Brawley SOCIAL COMPARISION THEORY comparing self to other people I Why and how does this happen 0 To be accurate in selfconcept 0 There s not always an objective standard I EX Objective standard for height 0 Make comparisons based on similar people I What do we socially compare 0 Level of ability correct attitude relationship goalssignificant other emotionsreactions salary reputation I Goals 1 Accurate selfconcept SelfEnhancement make self look good a We make downward social comparisons comparing someone worse to than you 3 SelfImprovemen improving own selfconcept make self a better person a Make upward social comparisons compare to someone better than us role model 4 Sense of Communion bonding a EX See if other people like a movie comedian class music I RelevantAttributes Similarity people similar to you to be accurate 0 Comparing height genes shoes athletes gender age I 2 kinds of outcomes of social comparison 0 Assimilation seeing other person as similar to you I When we make evaluation compare to similar others I Contrast seeing other person as different I When someone else makes evaluation compare to dissimilar others Social Psychology Brawley SELFPRESENTATION 0 Acting intentionally to create a particular impression 0 Ex You re meeting significant other s parents 0 Minimize bad expressions 0 Relevant to selfconcept because selfperception 0 It s on purpose but can become automatic over time 0 Ex Get used to acting a certain way around significant other s parents 0 How to make a good impression 0 Confirm to social norms of the situation I Ex Happy at party sad at funeral 0 Match the behavior of others I Ex Only brag about grade after somebody brags about their grade first 0 SelfPromotion conveying positive information about yourself to get others to like you I Ex Go to church have a job I Can make you seem arrogant unconfident when you bring it up without being asked I To avoid this wait until they bring it up first ask them first have a friend bring up something 0 Ingratiation conveying positive information about others to get others to like you I Ex Tell someone they are great at golf look pretty 0 SelfPromotion and Ingratiation I Can do both I Selfpromotion when we want to be seen as talented I Ingratiation when we want to be seen as likable INEFFECTIVE SELFPRESENTATIONEMBARRASSMENT 0 Ex Late to dinner with significant other s parents 1 Apply Attribution Theory 0 When behavior is negative blame situation selfserving attribution bias 0 Excuses that are likely traffic significant other made you late 0 Excuses that are unlikely I forgot overslept 2 SelfHandicapping setting up obstacles so if you fail later you can blame those obstacles O mviorgl SelfHandicapping actually creating a handicap I Ex Stay up all night studying sets up you being tired if you fail test you can blame being tired Social Psychology Brawley O SelfReport SelfHgndicagging claiming a handicap I EX Say you are tired when you took a test 3 Sandbagging pretending you are unable Will fail 0 Ex Pretend you are bad at darts until betting money
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