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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clara Haugen on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Christopher Mitchell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Into to Comparative Politics in Public Relations at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
The Modern State 1 Key Terms A state entity with monopoly over legitimate use of force in territory Max Weber 1 entity set of institutions What sort of institutions a state 1 Americans call this govt 2 enduring institutions b regime 1 type of political system 2 democratic of authoritarian c Govt 1 specific leaders in office 2 in Us administration 2 in a territory a clearly defined borders 3 legitimacy a Types of Domestic Legitimacy 1 traditional legitimacy B state building C neopatrimonialism D bureaucraticrational state E weakfailed state 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point F Second Point 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point 11 What State Isn t A countryterritory B nation imagined country C nations W out states like Kurdistan D states W out nations like AustriaHungary E First Point 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point F Second Point 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point 111 Why do We Care About the State A essential to functioning of modern societies 1 wellbeing of citizen B Essential to stability of int system 1 wellbeing of immediate system 2 more general int Security Concerns IV Loss of State Control A Mexico B Failing States Pakistan NW frontier and federally administered tribal areas C Failed States Afghanistan D Collapsed States Somalia has improves political control since Jan 1st 2011 Origins of the Modern State 1 Origin of modern state A Key Terms 1 Social contract 2 stationary bandit protection racket 3 mass armies 4 modernization B Elements of state 1 set of institutions 2 Supporting Point C BureaucraticRational Modern State 1 Rooted in rationallegal legitimacy based system of laws and procedures 2 society ordered rationally 3 focus on public good rather than private gain D Alternatives to Modern State 1 Tribes 2 citystates 3 traditional empires 4 feudal kingdoms 5 Mideival forms a cityleagues papal states knightly orders 6 colonial empires 7 superstate federalismEU Modern State Ascendent 1 modern state emerges in Europe 17th and 18th centuries War Makes States and States Make Wars Charles Tilly 1 but interstate war rare 2 domestic con ict much more common a displace more people greater human rights abuses most effective forms survive modern state is most effective first in western europe then in world Why Western Europe 1 mideival Europe had many small varied state forms 2 Anarchy a no central authority after the Fall of Rome b unlike China India Middle East 3 High amp increasing population density a unlike Africa and the Americas 4 Result constant warfare b C 01 larger states do better than smaller states 1 territorial consolidation more efficient states do better 1 centralization of control richer states do better 1 promotion of rational economic policy 2 expansion sophistication of taxation policy mass armies do better 1 traditional states rely on mercenaries 2 states With popular legitimacy can raise mass armies Legitimacy and state strength a b legitimate states can ask more of citizens I increased tax burden 2 increased compliance with laws 3 less expenditure on domestic coercion legitimate states can raise mass armies 1 pre 1800 small professional armies a feudal lords and mercenaries 2 Napolean PostNapoleonic Reforms a States need to raise own mass armies 10 1 therefore need popular legitimacy b reformation of traditional states 1 attention to wider spectrum of population 2 3 shift from subjects to citizens Mass suffrage a democracy b liberal authoritarianism 4 cultivation of nationalism State building in western Europe Statebuilding elsewhere a settler colonies 1 Americas South Africa Australia b traditional empires 1 in asia statebuilding in settler colonies a Americas Australia new zealand south africa rhodesiaZimbabwe b large number of western europeans settle l native populations eliminated statebuilding in traditional empires a asian empires 1 china india japan persia 11 12 b 0 states on boundaries of Europe 1 ottoman russian austrohungarian empires organised on premodern terms imperial transformation a b must become modern states to compete with western european modern states 1 china india initially colonized successful adaptation often painful 1 must destroy traditional oorder and remake it 2 japanese maiji restoration 3 chinese russian communist revlutions those that don t adapt disappear 1 austrohugarian ottoman empires 2 new small states in europe middle east statebuilding in Africa a b precolonization weak states 1 unlike Europe low population density colonization based on extraction 1 borders disregard ethnic divisions 2 state structures built for extraction postcolonization neopatrimonialism 1 new elites take over extractive structures 13 14 15 16 17 2 no interstate warfare 3 no incentive to tranform into modern states 4 mimic the form but not the function of modern states Need for statebuilding a George W Bush 1 I don t think our troops ought to be used for what s called Spillover Effects from Failed States Havens for crime and terrorism a a problem for neighbors b increasingly a global problem Human rights abuses a military intervention in Somalia 1992 1 but not in Rwandan genocide 1994 b refugees ooding into Europe today Challenges of State building a Is the solution for Africa to build states b n Globalization and the Modern States A domestically focused states poorly equipped to handle global challenges 1 economic interdependence 2 global warming 3 pandemics 4 rise of nonstate actors a multinational corporations and interest groups b terrorist networks and organised crime B move to supranational governance 1 global organisations like UN or WTO 2 regional organizations like EU or ASEAN III CODClUSlOIl Nations and Nationalism 1 KeyTerms A B C nationalism irredentism secessionism nationstate ethnic nationalism ciVic nationalism First Point 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point Second Point 1 Supporting Point 2 Supporting Point 11 Define Nation and Nationalism A What is a Nation 1 nation an imagined community 2 group of people who share common identity a based on distinguishing characteristics b claim to territorial homeland 6 7 8 mobilized politically for selfrule state political institutions controlling territory Nation common Supporting Point Supporting Point B Nationality not ethnicity 1 2 3 although they can blur into eachother ethnicity common cultural or blood connection a may or may not be political nationalism passion for and pride in nation c Why is Nationalism important 1 2 3 source of political mobiliztion and legitimacy can strengthen states a Nationstate can harm states a irredentism D Nations and Mobilization 1 nationalism enables mobilization a calls upon common identity b defines community worth protecting 2 people Will sacrifice to protect nation a in a way they re not Willing to do to protect the state b more Willing to fight E The NationState 1 state as protectorwmbodiment of nation 2 highest form of modern state a has advantages of bureaurat State b and additional ability to mobilize 3 WHy Do We Care a Irredentism Leads to Interstate War 1 W11 IndiaPakistan b Secessionism Leads to CIVil War 0 F 2 Kinds of Nationalism 1 Ethnic Nationalism ethnic group mobilized for political goals a Ethnicity writ large b exclusive 1 either you are born into group or not 2 can t join if you re not a member 3 can t be expelled if you are member 0 jus sanguinis citizenship 1 right of blood ethnicity d Examples Britain Germany Civic Nationalism community of ideas a mobilized around common ideas and values b inclusive 1 membership based on embracing values 2 can join by embracing values 3 can be excluded for denying values c jus soli citizenship G Ethnic vs Civic Nationalism 1 immigration a ethnic easy if of common ethnic descent hard otherwise b civic determined by raceneutral valuebased neutralization process Politics and Nationalism a ethnic broad range of political views b civic narrower range of political views H EthnicCivic Tensions 1 ethnic nationalism displacing civic a postCommunist states b India and rise of Hindu nationalism c France and headscarf debate 1 defense of secularism or xenophobia d US and achor baby debate 1 shift from birthright to Descent citizenship e Civic nationalism displacing ethnic 1 India under Ghandi 2 Iraq and Afghanistan today 2 Ethnic Nationalist Minorities in Civic Nations a Example Quebec 1 The PreNational World 1 nations are modern creations a contrary to national myths b first appear c 1500 in Europe 2 in premodem world a languages more uid and undefined b no sense of community beyond immediate geography c no motivation to sacrifice for nationstate J Vulgate Languages and Mutual Comprehensibility 1 comprehensibility weakens the farther outward you go in state K Dialects Intelligibility and Hot Fuzz 1 example of linguistic drift within same language L Mutual Intelligibilty and Paris III M N and Rome Origins of Nationalism A Mass Literacy and Print Capitalism 1 Gutenberg Bible 2 Languages became fixed with written language based on where markets are in state 3 people became closer to those who shared establisked written language and barriers between countries became more pronounced TopDown Account 1 Nationalism makes mobilization easier a people give blood and treasure to protect community 2 elites cultivate nationalism to enhance state power BottomUp Accounts 1 Sense of national unity develops a common language and intellectual community 2 community wants a state to protect itself 3 Germany Italy Central Europe The UK One British Nation Flag of Ireland Flag of PRC 1 Big Star of Communist Party 2 little stars for proletariat peasantry petite bourgeois national bourgeois 3 old national ag Han Manchu Mongols Hui Muslims Tibetans G Nationalism As State Breaker 1 Nations and State Borders may not align 2 Irredentism a national population outside nationstate b 3 Secessionism national population wanting to break away from state a Basque Country b Kurdistan 0 Scotland d Is ethnicity important 4 Weakening Multinational States a AustroHungarian Empire b Yugoslavia 0 EU is blocked from moving toward unified decisions with refugee crisis 5 Preventing formulation of NationState a Iraq crippled by national divisions inside b PostColonial African States 1 Nigeria and Kenya H Irredentism and Europe in 1920 1v Evalutating Nationalism A Positive Aspects 1 Enable unity for common purpose 2 enhance capacity of state production better standard of living 3 legitimacy of rulers advances B Negative aspects 1 Source of prejudice and division 2 Mobilization for con ict a Interstate and domestic con ict Ind Lit Mass Eduprint phantom states external legitimacy acknowledgement of other states Taiwan has issues with this Palestine internal legitimacy people within state acknowledge their rulers Iraq has issues with this
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