Sept 15 Notes
Sept 15 Notes 101.0
Popular in Western Civilization I
Popular in History
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by josiepelham on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101.0 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Staci S Glover (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization I in History at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Sept 1517 Species Interaction and Community Ecology 0 Case study 0 Zebra Mussels in Great Lakes 0 Cause millions of dollars of property damage each year 0 Species Interaction O 0 Type 0 Effect on species 0 Effect on species 1 2 0 Competition 0 o o Predation o o Parasitism Herbivory o Mutualism o o o Intraspecific competition members of the same species are competing 0 Higher population density equals higher competition 0 nterspecific competition Different species are competing o Strongly effects community composition 0 Leads to competitive exclusion or coexistence Competition is subtle and indirect Resource partitioning competing species coexist 0 Using different resources 0 Sharing resources Predation capture and kill prey different species Population Dynamics I Higher predator population lower prey population I Lower predator population higher prey population Natural Selection evolution of adaptations that make predators better hunters Parasitism relationship in which one organism is dependent upon another 0 Ticks cuckoos brownheaded cowbird roundworms o Parasitoids insects that parasitize other insects o Coevolution hosts and parasites become locked in a duel of escalating adaptations o Herbivory eat plants 0 Plants adapt defense mechanisms 0 Chemical defenses Toxic distasteful 0 Physical defense thorns spines hairs o Symbiosis organisms live in close contact with one another o Pollination Benefits both organisms 0 Community group of interacting populations 0 Trophic levels 0 Producers 0 Consumers Primary Secondary Tertiary o Detritivores amp Decomposers o 90of the energy of the food is lost with each level 0 Biomass mass of living matter goes down with each level 0 Keystone strong and wide reaching impact I Removing of keystone organism has substantial impact 0 Trophic cascade predators promote population at lower levels by keeping species at intermediate levels in check Resistance community resists change and remains stable despite disturbance Resilience community changes in response to a disturbance but returns to original state 0 Primary Succession disturbance removes all vegetation and soil 0 Glaciers volcano lava 0 Pioneer species are the first to regrow 0 Secondary Succession Disturbance has removed much of the biotic community I Fire tornadoes hurricanes Climax Community stays intact with few changes Restoration Ecology restoring an area to an earlier condition Biome major regional complex of similar communities recognized by vegetation structure and plant types 0 Abiotic factors can influence biome locations 0 Types of biomes o Temperate deciduous I Trees lose their broad leaves in the fall I Europe East China eastern North America I Even precipitation year round I Fertile soils I Oaks Beech Maple Hickory I Deer raccoons red foxes broad winged hawks snowy owls o Temperate Grasslands I More temperature difference between summer and winter I Less precipitation no trees I Bison prairie dogs groundnesting birds 0 Temperate Rainforest o Tundra US coastal Pacific Northwest Heavy rainfall Coniferous trees Spruce Cedar Hemlock Fir Animals that love moisture Banana Slug Erosion and landslides strip soil of nutrients Tropical Rainforest PoorsoH Always rainy Same temperature year round Southeast Asia west Africa Central and South America Diverse species but low densities Tropical dry forest India Australia Africa South America Plants drop leaves during dry season Warm less rainfall Severe oil erosion bc of agriculture Savanna Tropical dryland with occasional trees Africa South America Australia India Precipitation comes during wet season Zebras gazelles giraffes lions hyenas Minimal precipitation Sahara bare with sand dunes Sonoran heavily vegetated Temperatures very daynight and seasonally Soil is high in mineral content and low in organic matter Animals are nocturnal and nomadic Plants have thick skin and spines Russia Canada Scandinavia Minimal rain and very cold winters Permafrost permanently frozen soil Polar bears musk oxen migratory birds caribou Lichens low vegetation no trees 0 Boreal Forest Taiga Canada Alaska Russia Scandinavia Few evergreens I Cool and dry climate I Soil is poor in nutrients and acidic I Moose wolves bears lynx migratory birds 0 Chaparral I Mediterranean Chile California south Australia I Evergreen shrubs I Highly seasonal I Fire resistant plants Chapter 8 Biodiversity Biodiversity variety of life at all levels of organization 0 Genetic species ecosystem Inbreeding depression 0 Low population genetically similar parents mate and produce inferior offspring o Bison elephant seals cheetahs Richness absolute number of species found in an area Evenness extent to which species differ in number of individuals Ecosystem diversity 0 Beaches cliffs coral reefs Ecotourism seeing an ecosystem in its natural state is a vital source of income for many nations 0 US national parks Extirpation o Disappearance of a population from a given area but not globally not extinct Brink of extinction o Whooping crane Kirtland s Warbler California Condor Noise and light interference with behavior and habitat use of animals Invasive Species o Kudzu Handina privet Emission of greenhouse gases warm temperatures Endangered Species Act ESA 1973 0 Primary goal protect biodiversity Captive breeding Bred raised and released into the wild
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