History notes week 4
History notes week 4 HIST 1010 - GL2
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Chambers on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - GL2 at Auburn University taught by Michael B Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Ancient China China39s Geography and People 0 Northern and southern divisions 0 Yellow river region north had cooler weather not very good for crops 0 Yangtze area south had a tropical temperature great for growing rice 0 Yellow river culture was the rst development of Chinese culturecivilization Western area considered a 39wild frontier39 as well as to the far north where a nomadic culture wondered o All this to say that Chinese culture wasis very diverse Han Chinese dominant ethnicity agricultural develop written characters 0 Race division not between skin color but by culture Turkic language and people nomadic non farmers don39t use Chinese characters no written language Neolithic and early 39town culture39 of China 0 90001600 BC Develops about a thousand years after the rst appearance of towns in Ancient Near East 0 Early towns have clear defensive walls Cultures arise around yellow river 0 Cultures can be differentiated by their pottery 1900 BC 0 Development of bronze smelting Chinese are exceptionally good at this 0 Form clay molds poor molten bronze in cool undo mod pot Mining coper led tin forces development of a government to organize the mining force a 1600 BC 0 Development of Chinese characters 0 Oracle bones Tortoise shell or bones used for divination Write a question on the boneshell super heat a bronze poker touch the bone till cracks appear read the cracks and decide the future based off of the cracks 0 Where as the rst written language in the Ancient Near East was for trading in Ancient China the rst written language was used for religion 0 Language began as pictographs logographs At rst strait forward then slowly becomes more abstract expressions of their meaning however Chinese never turns into the phonetic language that Greek turned into 0 Pictographs made it very dif cult to express abstract ideas Combined pictographs in order to express abstract ideas 0 Character for woman and child combined meant affection Man and dog meant to show obedience Sheep and big meant beautiful Ancient China It was very cumbersome to read because there were soooooo many characters and combinations of characters Meant that very few people were literate Only the wealthy were literate Makes communication across cultures easy because people could basically gure out what things meant when written even if they couldn39t speak the same language Shang Dynasty he said it wasn39t actually a dynasty but he kept referring to it as a dynasty Religion 0 Shangdi their god 0 Also worshiped their ancestors Gave offerings human sacri ces sometimes but only to their ancestors Believed that the Shang king was actually a priest Shang capital in Anyang o Raised platforms made of pounded earth acted as the base for the homes of the elite o The common people basically lived under ground Job of the commoners to provide for the elite Lady Fu Hao39s tomb o Containing hundreds of artifacts made of Bronze and Jade 0 Wife of Shang king Believed to have lead men into battle Weapons found in her tomb o Slaves sacri ced and buried with her to serve her in the after life 0 Had political power Sanxingdui culture basically mentioned so that we knew that there were other cultures besides the Shang although Shang is the biggest for a while Sanxingdui culture also produced bronze and that39s how we tell their culture apart from the Shang Zhou Culture 0 10591045 BC Invades and takes over Shang Religion 0 Tian worshiped the sky 0 Ruler said that is was a mandate from heaven that told him he was right to attack Shang 0 Decide that this is how rulers were put into place 0 They did not sacri ce human sacri ce although they did worship their ancestors Better and more political organization Ancient China 0 Main king had subordinate kings under him that consisted of the aristocracy 771221 BC 0 Break up of Zhoa kingdom Han39s branch out into out lying land 0 Kingdom becomes too big and the outlying kingdoms gain more power than Zhou39s capital and Zhou culture is over thrown This begins the warring states period in which everyone is basically ghting over resources Warfare 0 Initially chariot warfare o Requires three people well trained people 0 Small army of elite troops Change comes with development of iron smelting technology 0 Stronger and more durable weapons 0 Development of the crossbow Can produce massive amounts of iron 0 King drafts large groups of peasants and supplies them with iron weaponry swords o Creates an absolutely MASSIVE infantry 1010039s of thousands of troops Rise of the Shi Professional 0 Government officials 0 Military leaders not warrior leaders that are the take over whenever they are stronger more like tacticians Traditional warrior leader and priests fall away Highly educatedtrained 0 Accounting advising the king 0 Someone can rise from nothing and become powerful Golden Age of Chinese Philosophy 0 Questions raised about life 0 How to make culture better 0 Mostly these questions were about how to improve life through the government Confucius o Started as a minor government official 0 Quits his job because the king won t listen to him 0 Travels Looking for a king who will listen Ancient China Can39t nd a job 0 Starts teaching students Techniques of government 0 Bad politician brilliant teacher Never wrote anything down himself His students decided that what he was saying was so valuable that they recorded in writing all his lectures The Analict39s I don39t know how it is spelled His thought process wasn t very systematic 0 Modern Confucianism has been developed by more recent followers of Confucianism 0 Main goal was to provided peace and harmony through the government 0 Believes everything is based in human morals Make a society of virtue and ethics to govern human society Believe the government should be run by the elites because they are the only ones who can accomplish this 0 Recti cation of Names Goal of peace and prosperity can be achieved if everyone just plays their role Each person has their own unique role to play 2 scholars put this together 0 Menchious sp 0 Shungzah sp The educated must study and teach virtue Commoners must listen and harvest for the educatedelite so that they can conUnue 5 relationships all human relationships are based off a form of hierarchy 0 Father son Elder brother younger brother Husband wife Elder friend younger friend Master servant People of lower status have to follow the one of higher status however it is the job of the higher to be the benevolent care giver for those beneath them 0 King must look out for his people or else the people have the right to rebel because he is not taking care of them Menchious this will be accomplished through kindness man is basically good Shungzah this will be accomplished by a ruling power man is basically bad and must be controlled through strict rules New philosophies o Legalism because man is inherently bad they must be ruled by one ruler who creates a strict set of laws where if they are broken people OOOOO Ancient China are met with extremely harsh punishment and if they are followed met with great reward The two main backers of this were Lord Shan Yang and Han Fei o Daoism people must be led by 39the way39 the way cannot be understood through intellect bu through intuition through nature Keep the people ignorant and well fed they will not ask questions basically keep people fat and happy and they won39t cause any issues Loazah sp and Shuangzi Qin KingdomDynasty Developed by Lord Shang Yang and Han Fei on the edge of the 39civilized world39 0 Because they are not surrounded on all sides by already established kingdoms they are able to expand more easily into the not yet conquered areas 0 Unlike the rest of the nations where the king is weak the king of Qin is very strong and exercises great power over his people 0 Successful government 0 Establish legalism as their means of governing 300 BC Shang Yang proposes legalist government to the king Says to divided the entire country into military ranks 0 Rank determines amount of land that is given to the person 0 For each enemy head they bring back from battle they go up a rank there are 18 Get more land with each promotion Rewards encourage Qin soldiers to be brave in battle Equally as harsh punishments o If a person gets scared or retreats they can be stripped of ranking or worse 0 Also divides households into 5 household units 0 5 houses take care and are held responsible for one another Any one person39s actions are punishable not only to that person but to the entire household unit A form of population control Kept groups accountable to each other 0 Created a direct administration 0 Bureaucrats appointed by the king Salary paid by the king Helped to control outlying areas of Qin kingdom Qin state becomes one of the most powerful kingdoms 246BC Ancient China Ying Zheng becomes king at age 13 assisted by a very capable advisor LiSi 221 BC Ying Zheng defeats and conquers all of China Makes himself emperor over all of China Huangdi son of heaven Emperor is essentially a god 0 Hides himself away and is rarely seen by the public to give him a 39godlike mystic39 so that people are frightened by him The emperors power is absolute 0 He is the only one to exercise political power except a select few who were his most trusted advisors 0 There was no idea that commoners had a voice their only job was to sit and listen to the emperor No citizenship idea Developments Creates a highly structured bureaucracy All government conducted within the imperial palacecompound 0 Government was not a public affair Inner and outer court 0 Outer court official bureaucracy emperor divided the country into provinces called commandries with three local officials to keep each other in check governor civilian administrator in charge of the census taxes law and justice etc commander commanded the troops of the province censor kept track of the governor and commander there were nine departments in the outer court kind of like we have DOD DOJ DOT etc 0 Inner court the emperors home Imperial harem Inner court was entirely women emperors children and eunuch guards o Ended up having some political power because the women all wanted their son to be the next emperor so they would manipulate the emperor 0 Even the eunuchs had some power of manipulation over the king because his children were often friends with the eunuchs because they were the only other people they could come into contact with Drafted civilians into building things for him Ancient China All civilians were required to work on building various structures for an allotted amount of time without pay Began building the initial stages of the great wall of china in order to defend their boarders Road system to keep control of the empire 0 Easier communication 0 Quicker troop movement Standardization of the Qin Dynasty Introduces uni ed writing system 0 Before each kingdom used a different variation of the Chinese characters 0 Now they all used the same characters called small seal script 0 Uniform currency weight and measurement system made trade much easier 0 Standard width for cart wheel base established 0 Makes sure that roads stay in proper working order Huge amount of money spent on expensive buildings puts a burden on the people Ex Terra cotta army commissioned by Ying Zheng before his death so that upon his death he was buried with a massive army of life size clay soldiers each with different faces He accomplished a lot but was a brutal tyrant Thought his descendants would rule for 1000 years 0 Only lasted around 20 0 His son was weak and quickly over thrown in a revolt o A group of soldiers were sent to an out post and delayed by a storm so they did not arrive on time which was punishable by death so since they were going to die any way they revolted and this sparked a civil war Han Dynasty Lio Bong Reunites china after a short civil war and establishes the Han dynasty Says he is emperor because of a mandate from heaven 0 The previous emperor was a brutal tyrant and lost his power because he did not do his duty and take care of his people Emphasizes Confucianism o Says he will look after his people Immediately cuts taxes Ancient China Though the ideals change the structure of the government remains almost exactly the same 0 Emperor rules over the subordinate kings who must obey the emperor Lio Bong runs into a bit of an issue 0 A group of people north of china Mongolia area named the Xiongnu start to get restless o Nomadic herders not much known about these people because they had no written records they have found deer stone pillars with highly stylized deer carved into them stretching all the way from Mongolia to Iran 0 The wall that Yang Zheng built was built on their grass lands where their herds grazed A leader arises named Modun who helps attack China Xiongnu were excellent horsemen because they spent ALL their time on horseback so they had a great cavalry to attack China39s infantry o Defeat many outer Han territories Lio Bong creates a peace treaty 0 Land divided into two realms Han realm Xiongnu realm o Lio bong revises his statement of he being the only ruler through the mandate from heaven and says that now there are two rulers mandated by heaven He also has to pay them not to ght against the Chinese