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History 1003

by: Alexia Gallien

History 1003

Alexia Gallien
GPA 2.75

Paul Hoffman

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About this Document

These notes are on the "The Great Tradition", and more so focusing on the Protestant Reformation and Religious Controversy.
Paul Hoffman
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Gallien on Tuesday September 2, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Louisiana State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 130 views.


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Date Created: 09/02/14
History Intro amp Day 826th amp28th Tuesday August 26 2 14 1 28 AM Introduction to the Course Tern s to knoW 1Secuarization The process of becoming secular in point of view that is concerned only with things of this world and explanations arising from it rather than also or only with things of the quotnext worldquot ie religion in one sense From the Latin quotsaecuarisquot coming once in an age in contrast to Latin quotcaeumquot for sky or quotheavenquot 2 Modernity quotThe rule of modern institutions of state civil society public sphere human rights equality before the law the individual distinctions between public and private the idea of the subject person hood democracy popular sovereignty social justice scientific rationality and so onquot Dipesh Chakrabaerty Provincializing Europe Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference Princeton 2000 4 Modernity can also be described as the urban industrial society with a low or declining death rate and at a lag a low or declining birth rate well developed state institutional and industrial bureaucracies of the quotrationalquot type universal suffrage and representative forms of government strong emphasis on equal individual rights under the law and on individuals as actors in the economic social and political spheres of life strong educational systems from primary to post graduate levels with a commitment to the use of scientific methods and quotreasonquot to seek answers to problems across the range of Nature and human experience Until the 21st century quotmodernquot societies were based on the use of fossil fuels Improvements in the transportation of goods and information are characteristic 3 Globalization A process in which the world39s peoples but especially their market economies are increasingly tied together by commerce manufacturing by multinational corporations in multiple places and the rapid movement of capital people and technologies among those markets Arguably this begins in the 14th century when Europeans first took their ships and trade goods down the coast of Africa the first step in knitting the continents and their peoples together with oceanic shipping and commerce and until the early 20th century was synonymous with the quotEurocentric World Systemquot The Term is more commonly applied to the post 1960 world with its multiple centers of manufacturing agricultural production for export finance education and innovation etc See Text Chapters 3133 for this recent stage in the process 4 Civic Behavior A general concept of how members of a political community eg a town should behave It embraces such things as living an orderly life defined by the 10 commandments and local customs as well as by laws paying taxes and otherwise doing one39s civic duty Because this is public behavior participation in public religious events may also be important if those events are important to the community as they almost always were 5 Contractualism The belief that it is possible to strike a bargain with the spiritual forces that rule the world and human life Typically these bargains take the form of a vow to do something if a saint or the Blessed Virgin will do something for the petitioners A famous example is Luther39s claim that he made a vow to St Anne the mother of Mary to become a monk if she would save him from being hit by lightening He did not get struck and so became a monk NB this was his quotroadquot experience linking him to the disciples on the way to Emaus and to St Paul the Apostle 6 Enchanted World According to folk belief the physical world contains many spiritual forces some benign and others malevolent For example trolls lay in wait for the unwary traveler beneath bridges Much of this belief can be classified as quotanimismquot and in late medieval Europe was a hold over from the pagan past The opposite way to view the world is a a purely physical space operating according to natural laws The shift to this point of view over the 4 centuries after 1500 is also called quotsecularizationquot 7 Humanismn the early modern period A term describing the study of secular letters as contrasted to theology the study of divine letters This movement arose during the 14th century in Florence when scholars of the classics began to look for examples of civic virtue as part of a power struggle The arrival in Italy of scholars fleeing the expansion of the Ottoman empire brought new Greek and Latin manuscripts often in multiple copies that differed among themselves 8 Imitation of Christ Living a life of poverty chastity obedience and devotion to serving others as Jesus Christ was said to have done This quotidealquot was held up as the standard for clergy especially the monastic clergy and for lay persons although the latter were not expected to reach it since most married and many sought and acquired wealth 9 Nominalism A school of philosophy that arose in the 13th century in reaction to the conflict between the Aristotelians per St Thomas Aquinas and the Platonists The term comes from the Latin word quotnamequot nominum Nominalists said that the two schools were fighting about mere names and presuming that the quotnamequot each used for some aspect of reality was the quotnamequot that God used that is that it was TRUTH A dictionary definition is that Nominalism is the quotdoctrine that there are no universal essences in reality and that the mind can frame no single concept or image corresponding to any general termquot Webster39s Collegiate Dictionary 5th Ed 10 Providentialism The belief that nothing happens by chance or as a result of natural laws Thus storms were viewed as punishments for sin Illness was often thought to result from a spell cast by a witch or other person in league with the Devil Good events in human life are the result of Divine actions or the intervention of the saintsContractuaism is one way to try to prevent bad things from happening or to obtain good things from the spiritual forces of the universe 11 12 Mechanics Syllabus Tests Grades Moodle Code of Conduct PERSIA an overview of materials to be covered I A Political B Economic C Social D Intellectual E Artistic The Great Tradition Themes of this Course A 39gtS quotquot N Secularization of Elite Culture creates doubt Indirect in Era of Religious Controversy Direct in Scientific Revolution Direct in 17th Century Political Crisis Direct in the quotEnlightenmentquot a Deliberately challenged ModernizationThe Development of Modernity quotRise of quotModernityquot secularization The Enlightenment and quotEnlightenedquot states The French Revolution and the quotNation Statequot or 3939National Statequot a Invention b Part of modernity c All rituals of national state patriotism flags 4 Positivist Science 5 Classic Liberalism and other quotismsquot a quotismsquot mostly in 19th century as religions i Tells us why the world is in a terrible state and they have some sort of solution 6 The Industrial Revolution a There are many people who want to take part in this part of modernity 7 The Demographic and Urban Revolutions C Globalization and its Discontents 1 Modernity Formation of the Eurocentric World System 1400 2 Second Empires post 185019605 3 World Wars and the end of the Eurocentric World System a Came to an end 4 Bretton Woods 29441971 sets a framework a Sets up traditions 5 Neo Liberaism the Internet and other game changers 6 Resistance Fundamentalisms and others NOT IN TEXTBOOK The Larger Context Topical Approaches Processes of becoming they overlap chronologically each growing with andor out of the others 0 Poitica transition in Europe from Traditional Agriculture societies imperia societies to national states quotconstructedquot after 1750 S M 0 Economic Change from Local often quotin kindquot economics with limited market connections and long distance trade to Formation of the quotEurocentric World Systemquot and mostly Atlantic Empires G To Emergence of global markets and Polycentric World Market System G 0 Social ChangeS quotSecuarizationquot M quotModernizationquot Limited life expectance and experiences Fall in death rates M More cheaper goods S M Urbanization S M Vountary associations S M Secular individualism S M o IntellectualIdeological Change Break up of the religious quotunityquot of the West S Crisis of ancient of other quotauthoritiesquot S Emergence of the scientific method S M Enightenment Reason and Classic Liberalism S M Nationalism and its variants S M OTHER quotsmsquot that promise quotsavationsquot S M Totaitarianism S M quotReativismquot S M G o Artistic Change Reigious Art for instruction Renaissance perspective and realism M nfuence of Classicism 18th19th Centuries S mpressionism ca 18501890 S M nfuence of nonWestern Aesthetics 5 M G Abstract Art 1890s S M o quotPERSAquot A useful Tool Political Economic Religious Social Intellectual Artistic ltltAudio Recordingwmagtgt Everyone an Historian ltltHistory ntrowmagtgt o All storiesnarratives are necessarily selections of facts and ideas about them 0 In historical writing a question precedes the search for information that seems to answer the question 0 The best answers are those that incorporate what can be known and what other can examine to see if one has correctly understood what was going on Lecture Outline Era of Religious Controversy Part I Background and the Protestant Movement In MS Word How did the Great Tradition come to Include 0 Various forms of Christianity An early form of religious toleration Moves toward a secular quotworld viewquot even in the midst of a religious revival Secularization amp PR from quotPersiaquot O 0 Was the Western Christian Church Unified 0 Parish and quotregularquot Clergy were each within single institution organized in a hierarchy of offices with the Pope at the top Parae institutions Parish or Secular Regular or Monastic o Sacraments ceremonies were basically the same across Western Europe but there were various theological traditions esp among the quotregularquot clergy 0 Certain beliefs were widely but not universally held among quotChristiansquot Clergy and Lay 0 Commonly Held Beliefs o the belief that nothing happens by accident 0 Evil and natural and other disasters are the results of human actions sin and are signs of Divine Wrath punishing those actions Jonah and the Whale 0 Good things are due to the intervention of the Saints etc and God39s quotgeneral gracequot 2 the belief that you can make quotdealsquot with the saints the Blessed Virgin Jesus Christ even God 3 2 as the highest form of spiritual and daily life for Clergy and Lay Poverty Chastity Obedience devotion to religious activity 4 Fragments of Folk belief in animistic and other spiritual forces in nature the Enchanted World A The Church39s Authority was questioned12 things in the text including 1 Clergy as demanding Landlords 2 Criticism of clerical life styles esp quotreguarsquot 3 Theological Disagreements Thomists Platonists Nominalists Humanists Heretics o z willing obedience to a person or institution recognized as having the right to rule or say what is quottruequot II The Elites were concerned about the behavior of the urban poor Ill Two Currents of Reform A Popular Movements Seek 1 Greater personal spiritual life 2 Outward moral behavior 10 commandments and local customquotCustom Behaviorquot 3 Works of charity 4 5 Sometimes aided by local clergy vi 1 Examples i Brethren of the Common life ii Confraternities made it possible for people in poverty to get help iii Observant Movements among Monastic Orders related iv quotHereticsquot such as 2 Bohemianow Czech England 0 Note Strongest in townssocia controin a small village it is not present Northwestern Europe and Northern Italy II Reform of the Institutional Church text 12 complaints against some clergy and the institution 0 Aims Remove abuses of canon law must be 25 cannot hold more than 1 office cannot buy offices I Examples of the Institutional Church o Conciliar Movement 14th15th centuries 0 Popular pressure against clergy not living the quotimitation of Christquot 0 Mutual criticism among clerical groups Observant movements rivalries add second chart in power point IV Martin Luther 0 Biography of a Radical o Vow to StAnne Contractualism 0 Eliminate Sin39s Penalties Behavioral System 0 quotThe Wallquot and Despair 0 An answer The Justified live by Faith 0 Protests Indulgences as a scam In 1560 don39t need them 0 His Ideas A radically simple theology 1 God alone saves humans can only believe 2 Only the Bible is authoritative 3 Priesthood of all believers 4 Church is under State39s protection But in practice he Wanted Christianity as he imagined it had been in the 12th13th Centuries III The Spread of Radical Reform 0 Enthusiastic Students and Lay Persons 0 Use of the Printing press Cartoons press 60 years old as an example of the disciplined Christian Community in citystates Swiss such as ZurichGeneva quotTheological Conversationsquot V Political and Social Actors benefit by Reforming the church 0 National Reformations 0 Sweden 1524 0 England 15331536 0 Denmark 1536 0 State over Church 0 State Confiscates Monastic Property 0 State39s power is Enhanced o Flowering of the Truly Radical 0 Primitive church enthusiasts 0 People share everything community in the book of Acts 0 Anti Trinitarians 0 Anabaptists 0 Only adult baptism quote baptism ofJesus by John the Baptist 0 Rejection of civil society we are free to do what we want Universally persecuted by Catholics and major Protestant groups and civil authorities The Reformed Tradition O Zwingli Zurich Part I am missing is above 0 John Calvin 0 Institutes of the Christian Religion 1536 and editions to 1564 his death 2 0 Systematic Exposition of the new ideas using Luther39s Short Catechism as an outline for 4 of 6 chapters 0 Predestination only some are saved and God does that Assurance in Theory part of a larger emphasis on quotGod in chargequot Gospel per letter to the Romans e Church Organized in hierarchy of representative councils of clergy and lay members not sanctioned by quotauthoritiesquot such as bishops i Example City councils certain French Nobles o Divisions over the Eucharist 0 Note quotaccidentsquot and quotsubstancesquot awere separable Hermetic Tradition jubstantiation Substance is divine Substance is transforming quotReal Presencequot quotsubstantiationquot o Emmaus Road quottheir eyes were opened and they recognized himquot Luke 2431 VII VIII Commemoration At 36 n1inutes go to next page Sources for more information on the Era of Religious Controversy Roland H Bainton The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century An old standard very readable but not so comprehensive as Diarmaid MacCulloch The Reformation A History A heavy tome for those who really want to know all the details including on the Reformation in places you never thought had it like parts of Hungary Ulinka Rublack Reformation Europe A new work emphasis on how Luther made Wittenburg into a model Christian community and used various methods to show he was a serious person Also good on the traveling students of the time Lecture Outline 5 Commonly Held Beliefs See Glossary under next week for terms if you did not get them during lecture The Simplified Model of Late Medieval Road to Salvation See PowerPoint slide This is the quotsystem against which Luther rebelled after pushing it to its logical extreme which is where it was never intended to go Two Currents of Reform 0 Popular Movements i What they sought 6 things ii Examples 4 0 Reform of the Institutional Church i Remove Abuses of Canon Law the internal rules of the Church ii Restore enhance the position of the male clergy and hierarchy ie quotthe church as institution in society Lay elites also want to reinforce male dominance in an hierarchical society 0 Two Pieties A Summary of Late Medieval Tendencies see PowerPoint Slide 0 Martin Luther i His 4 core radically simple ideas compared to the Model Road to Salvation In Practice 12th 13th Century Christianity as he imagined it had been before recent quotcorruptions ii Spread of his Ideas 0 The Magistrates Reformation o The 1st National Reformations iii Pandora39s Box The Theological Radicals ltltHistory 9 2 2014wmagtgt


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