chapter 4 dreams and drugs
chapter 4 dreams and drugs PSY 200
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Zinno on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 200 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Dr. Liesa Klein in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Eastern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Psychology Chapter 4 States of Consciousness States of Consciousness o The Nature of Consciousness 0 Sleep and Dreams 0 Hypnosis amp Meditation 0 Drugs and Consciousness Forms of Consciousness Consciousness modern psychologists believe is an awareness of our environment and ourselves High Level Lower Level automatic amp daydreaming Altered States biological interference Subconscious processing we are not aware of No Awareness Sleep and Dreams Circadian Rh hms occur on a 24hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness Termed our biological clockquot it can be altered by artificial light Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease morning melatonin from the pineal gland and increase evening it at nightfall Desynchronization of Circadian Rhythms Changes in sleep schedule Sleep disorders Work schedules Travel Reset the clock Mood and Season Seasonal Affective Disorder person experiences depression during the winter and an improvement of mood in the spring Research has shown that the hormone melatonin is secreted when it is darkthe more darknessthe more melatonin This leads to severe disruption in mood Phototherapy Sleep Stages When an individual closes his eyes but remains awake his brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow regular alpha waves 914 cps About every 90 minutes we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages Sleep Stages 12 During early light sleep stages 12 the brain enters a highamplitude slow regular wave form called theta waves 58 cps A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity Sleep Stages 34 During deepest sleep stages 34 brain activity slows down There are large amplitude slow delta waves 154 cps Stage 5 REM Sleep After reaching the deepest sleep stage 4 the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1 Although still asleep the brain engages in low amplitude fast and regular beta waves 1540 cps much like awakearoused state A person during this sleep exhibits Rapid Eye Movements REM With each 90minute cycle stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases Why do we sleep We spend onethird of our lives sleeping If an individual remains awake for several days immune function and concentration deteriorates and the risk of accidents increases Sleep Deprivation Fatigue and subsequent death Impaired concentration Emotional irritability Depressed immune system Greater vulnerability Sleep Theories Sleep Protects Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm s way Sleep helps us recover Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue Sleep helps us recuperate Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories Sleep may play a role in the growth process During sleep the pituitary gland releases growth hormone Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less Sleep Disorders Insomnia A persistent inability to fall asleep or maintain sleep Narcolepsy Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up Sleep paralysis Sleep apnea Failure to breathe when asleep REM BD Lack of paralysis during REM sleep Children are most prone to Night terrors The sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions eg rapid heart rate perspiration which occur during Stage 4 sleep Sleepwalking A Stage 4 disorder which is usually harmless and unrecalled the next day Sleeptalking A condition that runs in families like sleepwalking What We Dream Negative Emotional Content 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content Failure Dreams People commonly dream about failure being attacked pursued rejected or struck with misfortune Sexual Dreams Contrary to our thinking sexual dreams are sparse Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10 and in women 1 in 30 Dream Theories Cognitive Theory of Dreaming understanding of dreams through typical conscious processing ActivationSynthesis Theory the brain attempts to make sense of random neural firing Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person the hypnotist suggests to another the subject that certain perceptions feelings thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur Explaining the Hypnotized State Divided Consciousness Consciousness divides in 2 1 aware 1 unaware Social In uence Theory Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative actors playing a social role Meditation A peaceful state of mind focused on thoughts and feelings nonjudgmentally Reduced negative emotions Increased immune functioning Psychoactive drugs Substances which affect Mood Perception Memory State of consciousness Tolerance after using a drug repeatedly the original dose no longer produces the same level of impact The brain recognizes it overtime and tries to compensate Withdrawal Stopping use negative sideeffects likely Physical pain Depressed moodagitation Dependence aka addiction Is a craving for a substance despite its negative sideeffects Psychological Physical Psychoactive drugs Can be divided into 3 categories Depressants Stimulants Hallucinogens Depressants Alcohol Alcohol affects Motor skills eg speech and balance Iudgment eg belief can drive beer gogglesquot Memory Reduces selfawareness Depressants Barbiturates Barbiturates have similar effects to alcohol eg Impaired judgment and memory Generally depress the nervous system Depressants Opiates Opiates are derived from the poppy plant Opiates include not limited to Heroin Morphine Generally cause Sedation Euphoria Respiratory depression Stimulants Caffeine Has the typical impact as all stimulants ie energy and boosted heartrate Low dose ie can of soda typically lasts 34 hours Stimulants Nicotine 7 seconds to begin to feel effects alertfocused Relaxed 54 million People die from tobaccorelated deaths per year WHO Stimulants Cocaine Rapid effects following ingestion Euphoria varies alertness anxiety irritability feelings of superiority Stimulants Ecstasy Methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen About 30 minutes after ingestion MDMA releases serotonin as well as dopamine Mild euphoria Connectedness Selfacceptance Stimulants Methamphetamine Aka Meth Primarily triggers the release of dopamine causing increased energyalertness Euphoria Significant psychological ampphysical problems Hallucinogens LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide Mood and expectation in uence experience eg euphoria panic Primarily produces Visual hallucination Hallucinogens Marijuana THC delta9tetrahydrocannabinol Pain relief Time distortion Sensitivity to sounds colors tastes smells Relaxant Impairs motor skill Impaired perception Slower reaction time In uence for Drug Prevention and Treatment Education about the longterm costs Efforts to boost people s selfesteem and purpose Attempts to modify peer associations and teaching refusal skills
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