New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Lecture Notes (Lectures 1-2)

by: Hannah Shink

Lecture Notes (Lectures 1-2) ISS215

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Social Work > ISS215 > Lecture Notes Lectures 1 2
Hannah Shink
Social Differentiation and Inequality
Professor Hussain

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

First 3 class lectures
Social Differentiation and Inequality
Professor Hussain
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Social Differentiation and Inequality

Popular in Social Work

This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Shink on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS215 at Michigan State University taught by Professor Hussain in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Social Differentiation and Inequality in Social Work at Michigan State University.


Reviews for Lecture Notes (Lectures 1-2)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/18/15
Structural Functional Perspective and Social Inequality Lecture 1 9915 1239 PM 0 Society as a living social organism 0 Structural Functional Perspective and Social Inequality Pioneers 0 August Comte 0 Herbert Spencer 0 Emile Durkheim o Talcott Parsons 0 Structural Functionalism is a framework that sees society as a complex system It suggests that society is an integrated whole where both parts and whole are interdependent and functional 0 Functional perspective is complex 0 Ruling class manipulates people to form public opinion EX Ruling class convinced America that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction WMD that is how they got our country to want to go to war in Iraq 0 The way things appear to us are not the way they actually are 0 Society is complex integrated interdependent and functional 0 MAIN FEATURES 0 Society as an integrated whole 0 Systematic every society has a system 0 Individuals are indispensable if you have a society you must have members in that society If you have no people that society will cease to exist and disappear Ex Dream Island natural disaster happens and everybody dies this has happened to cities countries and civilizations Functionalists say that you must have people members individuals in a society to consider it a society Must have a population Countries in Europe have a negative population number of people born is smaller than number of people dying As time goes on these countries would disappear So they bring in immigrants to grow their country Every new born baby is a consumer economic growth growing population means more consumers If you don t have a growing population you must bring in people from other countries or have more children When a couple dies and they leave behind one child that is negative growth when a couple dies and leaves behind multiple children that grows the population 0 Temporary imbalances are always there in a society No society is perfect each one has it s problems and crisis As a society you should expect and accept these problems as realities These imbalances are good for society EX of imbalance in American society a Civil War in America a big imbalance hundreds of thousands of Americans were lost a Civil Rights Movement chaotic a September 11th damage of property and human life a Hurricane Katrina Why are these imbalances good u Brings society together a Gives an opportunity for growth Prof Explanation Imbalance is created by a problem when you experience a problem you try to fix it so that you do not have it again 0 Dysfunctional elements leading to social integration and equilibrium 0 Dysfunction people Criminals Deviants Terrorists o Terrorists can bring good to society because it brings awareness to a problem 0 The dysfunctional people create jobs Police Firefighters Lawyers Correction officers Judges etc o No force can unify a nation the same way events like 911 did 0 We use these dysfunctional people to socialize and raise our cthren 0 Social change is evolutionary 0 Change continues Change through evolution El We are different than our parents When we compare ourselves to our grandparents the difference is more visible As you continue going farther back in your family tree the differences are more and more different ex Belly Button Ring example Versus Change through revolution 0 Social integration through leqitimization of social economic and political structure 0 As a society you need to create rules and regulations to regulate all of your institutions social economic political education religion etc 0 Social stratification is good o It is functional 0 Pioneers 0 August Comte 17981857 0 Society as Organic Whole Society has life El Ex Human child is conceived born after birth human child is small weak less functional very dependent as child grows it can run communicate has feelings and life is more complex Becomes teenager is more functional amp has more social relations becomes adult is at peak of complexity remains on that level of complexity for 10 years Adults gets older and weaker and begins to again depend on others This is the life cycle of a human Comte says that society has life like a living organism a human Most recent example UK England 100 years ago England was the richest nation on Earth claimed sun never set in empire it was so big UK is now a tiny island Scottland Ireland England POINT Look at what happened in 100 years that is the rise and fall of civilization Individuals are functional 0 Everyone is functional even dysfunctional people Law of three stages Societies over time have gone through these three stages of development 0 Theological stage People used to believe that Earth was flat that Sun circled Earth Anyone who negated or rejected biblical knowledge in the middle ages was executed Metaphysical stage 0 Sun circled Earth God created Earth in 7 days Scientific stage 0 The stage where you start believing in knowledge that is based on science physics chemistry etc The knowledge that is tested and retested that can be objected Hebert Spencer 18201903 0 Social Organism Social Darwinism n Darwin was a biologist In His theory in evolution was survival of the fittest n In human societies across the globe all living organisms follow the rule of survival of the fittest I There are certain plants flowers amp vegetation that can survive the heat of Death Valley amp Sahara Desert then you go to the North Pole extreme cold you see live plants and vegetation in the middle of the snow if you switch them over they will die because they do not fit into the physical environments I In human societies those individuals who are best fitted they survive prosper succeed rule lead those who are not best fitted are left behind Spencer said if you want to create an ideal society that is functional eliminate the individuals that are not fit for society a Eliminate those that are unwanted from society PRISON the process of elimination from society a People believe that the poor should be punished and removed from society because they can t keep up with the rest of society Increase in size leading to increase in complexity and differentiation a When society increases in size population increases 2 things happen 0 Society becomes more complex 0 There are so many different types of people living under one country that it becomes much more complex 0 Society becomes different 0 In reference to being different Time A vs Time B People in Time A are different than people in Time B Differentiation in structure leading to differentiation in function a When structure of society changes 0 When society changed from agriculture to industry example or small to large or ruler to urban these changes have taken place in every society What happens 0 Functions of gender roles changing o Roles of gender Women became more independent when men went to war women had to fill in with the jobs women had access to education women had freedom 0 Example of a country where structural changes did not take place 0 Saudi Arabia Afghanistan Durkheim 18581917 0 Social Organism o Interrelationship of parts and the whole 0 Talcott Parson 19021979 0 Socialization and Control Concept of socialization suggests that we learn every single thing from other individuals 0 Functional Imperatives Adaption to environments I Everyone and everything must be able to adapt Goal Attainments a Society should always give the people aspirations and dreams money nice neighborhood education all values and dreams diploma is associated with respect so it is a part of the package of the American Dreamquot Parson says you must give these goals to people Integration In Rules and regulations Latency maintain patterns a The way things are not always a great idea LECTURE 1 PART 2 Outline Social Differentiation Social Inequality and Social Stratification Stratification Systems The Dimensions of Social Stratifications in the US Gilbert and Kahl Model Davis and Moore Criticism QTWUDPU Social Differentiation and Social Inequality Part 2 91415 1242 PM Social Differentiation Classification of individuals into socially recognizable groups Such classifications may be natural or manmade Biological differences race gender differences process of ageing 0 Biological differences around the globe are used to label people as superior vs inferior 0 We use biological differences to make judgments about people Manmade differences language economic status social class religion educa on There are countries that believe that their religion is superior so other religions are inferior to them this is a manmade belief This is not an isolated issue these issues affect everyone all over Social Inequality and Social Stratification A system of ranking individuals in terms of their access to and possession of the things valued by their society 0 In every society there are things that are valuable material value vs non material value I American Material value property cars money education U Belief If you have these things you are of a higher status or rank in America I American Non Material value looksbeauty U Belief If you have this you are superior to those who don t 0 The people who have access to these valuable things will always be superior access is not the only thing you must also have possession of these valuable things 0 People who have access and possession of these valuable things will be superior while those who don t are inferior Legally everybody has access to college this access is not free of condition you must have money EX In many societies around the globe women were told that they could not go to college they were denied access to something with value education so they did not have it 0 Same with property women could not own property but men could so women were inferior to men because they were denied access and possession to something of value A black man with money and a college education is superior to a white man with no money and no access to education The white man is denied access and possession of the value of education You give equal access and possession of valuable things to those who are inferior to achieve a higher level of equality throughout society Stratification Systems The Caste System there are different versions of this around the world o In almost every religion there is a story of how God created life God dismantled his physical self to create us 0 This is how God created life through Hindu caste system I Hindu Caste System the most rigid caste system B Brahmans from mouth The most superior caste of India Ghandi First prime minister of India U Khashtriyas from arms U Vaisyas from thighs U Shrudas from feet Farmers 0 Blue collar workers 0 These people are given the jobs that nobody wants to do I Harijans outcastes U The most inferior caste of India U Another word for this is untouchable if anyone touches you or your body your whole body is inferior and you must go to religious services to re purify your body These people are given the jobs that nobody wants to do quotTwo teenagers fell in love one is Brahman and one is Harijan untouchablequot story Untouchability Stratification system Say you are born with the characteristics and money and education will not make you superior KKK believes something along the same lines they believe that whites are superior and money does not make someone more superior than another By looking at this ranking makes us all untounchable to the hindu we are not hindu or Brahman we might have money education and wealth but that doesn t make a difference How do they know who is who since everybody looks alike 0 Separate neighborhoods 0 Not allowed to live in mainstream population had own school markets etc 0 They have all the geological history that they look up that is how they figure out who is welcome and who is not o If you are a powerful rich family your kids will be powerful and rich by default EX Paris Hilton but no matter what we do none of us will ever come close to the amount of money power and status she has The Estate System Existed during Roman Empire when Roman Empire fell apart they moved on to this 0 Nobility I Superior to all the rest of the guys Landlords I Had own military own private security personnel own judges own prisons I quotGod didn t create us we created God out of needquot people in ruling class used God to exploit everyone else 0 Clergy In the middle Priest Religion used as a tool to exploit people Acted as a middle man because he was a paid clergy by the nobles according to Marxists If found guilty of having sexual relations with a man who was not a womans husband she was punished but than man was not 0 Peasants At the bottom Social Class System wealth education occupation Modern societies what is going on right now The Dimensions of Social Stratifications in the US Economic 0 Occupation I All educational professionals are always ranked higher than others I CEO I Top 5 Occupations U Doctors U JudgesAttorneys U College Professors are not rich but are highly qualified people Educated professionals in America are ranked higher than millionaires based on public opinions although they do not enjoy the same power 0 Income I Is generated by profession or wealth o Wealth I Is not the only reason why and how Americans ranlt other Americans I EX Junkyard Owner v Governor who has more power Governor even though the junkyard owner is a millionaire m 0 Personal prestige I Personal charisma their own individuality gives them personal prestige this will outranlt these individuals over others 0 Association I In every society we have different groups of people who associate with one another I Sororities Fraternities Country Clubs American Medical Association etc B These groups are not open to everybody U Rules of inclusion amp exclusion Ex Prof violated rules of inclusion via teen talt story U Bottom groups Sororities and Frats they have no political or economic agenda U Top groups Bohemian Grove in America club of billionaires only for men no women Traditionally only for whites secret amp exclusive club when they meet area is off limit secret service amp air force protect the whole area 0 Socialization Political 0 Every Republican and Democrat is not equal Gilbert and Kahl Model According to this model in USA we have six classes 0 Capitalist Class 1 I Most powerful amp privileged people I The billionaires dominate economics politics culture etc I Rules amp regulations protect their money amp strengthen the cycle so that it keeps on growing I Money that sits outside of US is not taxable Apple example 0 Upper Middle Class 14 I Educated professionals who are successful I Doctors surgeons attorneys I A large number of these people work for the capitalist class and receive a lot of money in exchange 0 Middle Class 30 I Highly educated college graduated I Us College studentsgraduates I White collar people 0 Working Class 30 I Not necessarily college graduates I Have jobs that pay benefits 0 Working Poor 13 15 I People who work but are not hired for full time jobs I Work 20 30 hours a week 0 Underclass 10 12 Davis and Moore on Social Inequality 1945 No society is classless Criticism Stratification is a functional necessity gt you need a boss to direct workers in a store or company Certain positions are more important and require special talent skills and training gt the different applications in every society are not equal To become a doctor you need more work talent patience etc than to be another profession Social systems develop mechanisms and provide means to assign occupational positions gt everybody does not have equal access to these mechanisms doctor example ifyou don t have money education etc not accessible to everybody Motivation to succeed gt when society is based on inequality amp some people are respected and paid more while some people are disrespected and paid less there is competition and it motivates people to succeed Functional significance is a cultural phenomenon gt jobs with no economic value stay at home mom is of no value Structural inequality leading to unequal access to resources Stratification leads to status quo gt people who are born in richpoormiddle classes in most classes the children replicate that class life chances you die where you are born gt people at the top make the poor believe that they are poor because they are dumb lazy etc gt the ideology of the rich and powerful we believe this ideology because they are at the top Development of favorable self images gt portray self image as somebody who deserves what they have Produces conflict rather than integration in society gt society based on inequality too much inequality leads to conflict Lecture 2 September 16 Classical Theories of Social Inequality 91615 1235 PM OUTLINE I Emile Durkheim a Social Solidarity b Anomie c Durkheim and Social Inequality II Max Weber a Bureaucracy b Authority c Weber and Social Inequality III Ruling Class and Elites I Emile Durkheim 18581917 D Social Solidarity 0 Mechanical Solidarity these societies are rural agricultural simple and small 400 500 years ago in America I Simple division of labor U Different people doing different types ofjobs farmer blacksmith teacher people that live in simple societies know each other and depend on each other I Homogeneous people are very similar to one another I Similarity of individuals A I Collective conscience Fulfilling needs is simple I Individual ego not prominent Everybody knows everybody if somebody is not around people notice 0 Organic Solidarity these societies are urban industrial complex large modern America I Complex division of labor U Different people doing different types ofjobs farmer blacksmith teacher carpenter there are hundreds of thousands of occupations I Doctor skin specialist eye specialist oncologist pediatrician etc many specilizations I Differences NYC vs Texas everything is different members of societies are different from one another I Interdependence In lecture prof Hussain depends on the computer projector microphone heating and cooling etc to keep the class running I Increased individualism we as individuals are important everybody else is secondary to us t I Dehumanization Other individuals mean nothing to us example of guy who died watching TV example of prof friend who s mother died in apt Durkheim says when you create a society that is so into self development we don t have time for other individuals Emile Durkheim amp Anomie What is a social norm 0 Accepted and expected things in society 0 EX When you come to a college classroom you come dressed normally even if you believe you look best in a swimsuit social norms regulate what you put on before you come into a classroom you do not deviate 0 Having a party in a basement amp drinkingsmoking is cool someone who doesn t participate is a quotparty pooperquot how social norms work I Anomie is normlessness when social norms break down you have a problem creates chaos things that weren t normal at a normal time because normal Ex War people are raping Ex NYC power outage people grab others because it is pitch black out Ex Hurricane Katrina Floods People are looting I Durkheim amp Social Inequality Division of labor 0 We all do differentjobs Internal and external quality 0 Some people have an internal drive to do well 0 Some people depend on external factors to do well Class revolution 0 Can be economic industrial political revolution whenever there is a revolution the existing classes will change 0 What happened during industrial revolution I The existing rich in Europe landlords after IR factory owners became the new rich o In 1980 s and 199039s computer revolution happened in America so the existing classes in America after computer revolution were no longer the rich the quotcomputer guysquot ex Zucllterberg Jobs became the richest in America 0 Facebook s value is more than GE GM Walmart COMBINED 0 Whenever there is a revolution the existing class structure breaks down and the classes change dramatically Max Weber 1864 1920 Bureaucracy when you have a bureaucratic model that is more impersonal is not associated with individuals MSU is a bureaucratic organization at the top President gt Vice President gt Professors gt TA s gt Grad Student s gt Undergrad Student s o Impersonality I A If one day the president quits or is fired the rest of the organizationinstitution goes on Nothing is attached to one person 0 Hierarchy I Somebody is at the top somebody is at the bottom there are people in the middle people make decisions amp there is knowledge and experience within the hierarchy gt people must implement the decisions gt no such thing as quotnoquot gt hierarchy maintains orders within the organization 0 Written systems of rules I Everything is in writing no ambiguity 0 Clear division of labor I Who is doing what amp limitations are clearly written 0 Contains precision speed unambiguity lltnowledge unity produces less friction and is low cost I None of this is true in many countries around the world one must bribe the police with money to have them help find somebody who robbed them I Weber says there is nothing wrong with the theory Authority 0 Rational Legal Authority I The authority that is given to an individual by a society and it has a legal position police officerjudgepresidentgovernor 0 Traditional Authority I An authority imposed on you by your traditions o Charismatic Authority I Outstanding qualities that are tied to the particular individual is not because of their education or political authority Weber and Social Inequality 0 Classes Position of an individual in the market that determines their class position I Property Classes El I Social Classes El I Commercial Classes El


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.