Week of September 14th, 2015
Week of September 14th, 2015 ES 270 - C01
Popular in Oceanography
Popular in Earth Sciences
Kari Harber Jr.
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Neeman on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ES 270 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Anthony Vega in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Earth Sciences at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
September 14 2015 Mapping the Ocean Floor Early method 9 using a weighted line to measure depth Modern 9 Echo sounding 9 mutibeam systems 9 satellite altimetry Echo sounding 9 a method of measuring seafloor depth using powerful sound pulses Multibeam systems 9 provide more accurate measurements than echo sounders Multibeam systems collect data from up to 121 beams to measure the contours of the ocean floor Satellite altimetry 9 measures the sea surface height from orbit Satellites can bounce 1000 pulses of radar energy off of the ocean surface every second Cross section of the Atlantic basin and the continental United States showing the range of elevations There are two primary classifications of ocean floor Continental Margins 9 the submerged outer edge of a continent 9 two types of margins Passive margins face the edges of diverging tectonic plates Active 9 are located near the edges of converging plates Margins are the site of volcanic and earthquake activity Ocean Basin 9 the deep seafloor beyond the continental margin Continental margins have several components Continental shelf 9 the shallow submerged edge of the continent Continental slope 9 the transition between the continental shelf and the deepocean floor Shelf break 9 the abrupt transition from continental shelf to continental slope Continental rise 9 accumulated sediment found at the base of the continental slope Submarine canyons 9 are a feature of some continental margins They cut into the continental shelf and slope often terminating on the deepsea floor in a fanshaped wedge of sediment Turbidity currents 9 occur when turbulence mixes sediments into water above a slopping bottom Canyons formed by abrasive formed by turbidity currents plunging down the canyons Features of the deepocean floor 0 Oceanic Ridges o Hydrothermal vents o Abyssal plains and abyssal hills 0 Seamounts and guyouts o Trenches and island arcs Oceanic ridges 9 mountainous chain of young basaltic rock at an active spreading center September 16th 2015 Trenches 9 arcshaped depressions caused by the subduction of a converging ocean plate Chapter Five Sediments 9 Loose accumlations of particle material 9 depth and composition tell of conditions of earth system at time of deposition Most abundant sediments 9 Terrigenous from land Biogenous from living things Sediments 9 particles of organic or inorganic matter that accumulate in loose unconsolidated forms Marine sediments vary by characteristics of 0 Size 0 Source 0 Location 0 Color Hydrogenous sediment 9 chemically precipitated from water Volcanogenic sediments 9 from volcanic eruptions Cosmogonic sediments 9 from outer space September 18 2015 Over geological time mountains rise as lithospheric plates collide fuse and subduct Water and wind erode the mountains and transport resulting sediment to the sea The sediments are deposited on the seafloor where they travel with the plate and are either uplifted or subducted Thus the material is eventually made into mountains again The shelf 9 shallow and near a terrigenous source The deep ocean basin 9 deep and far from a terrigenous source Shelf sediment is strongly controlled by o Tides o Waves 0 Currents Their influence decreases with water depth Shelf Sediment Time Frame 0 Geologic controls of continental shelf sedimentation must be considered in terms of a time frame For a time up to 1000 years waves currents and tides control sedimentation 1000000 years sea level controls sedimentation 100000000 years ago plate tectonics determines the type of margin that develops and controls sedimentation
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