Week 1 - Chapter 1: Introduction
Week 1 - Chapter 1: Introduction Psych 3390
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3390 at Tulane University taught by Fabian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 1 Introduction Adolescence a period of the life course between the time puberty begins and the time adult status is approached when young people are in the process of preparing to take on the roles and responsibilities of adulthood in their culture Adolescents in Western Cultures A Brief History Adolescents in Ancient Times Plato and Aristotle viewed adolescence as the stage of life in which the capacity for reason rst developed According to Aristotle it is only toward the end of adolescence about age 21 that reason establishes rm control over the impulses Adolescence From Early Christian Times Through the Middle Ages Similar struggle between reason and passion The Children s Crusade was a total disaster but the fact that it was undertaken at all suggests that many people of that era viewed adolescence as a time of innocence and saw that innocence as possessing a special value and power Adolescence From 1500 to 1890 Lifecycle service a period in their late teens and 20s in which young people from the 16th to the 19th century engaged in domestic service farm service or apprenticeships in various trades and crafts The Age of Adolescence 18901920 Only toward the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century that adolescence became a widely used term The years 18901920 were crucial in establishing the characteristics of modern adolescence Key changes 0 Enactment of laws restricting child labor I Young people were being exploited and harmed by their involvement in adult work 0 New requirements for children to attend secondary school I The proportion of adolescents in school increased dramatically I Marked a more distinct separation between adolescence as a period of continued schooling and adulthood as a period that begins after schooling is nished 0 Development of the eld of adolescence as an area of scholarly study I G Stanley Hall obtained rst PhD in psychology in the US founder of American Psychological Association I Child study movement Late 19th century group led by G Stanley Hall that advocated research on child and adolescent development and the improvement of conditions for children and adolescents in the family school and workplace I Recapitulation nowdiscredited theory that held that the development of each individual recapitulates the evolutionary development of the human species as a whole I Storm and stress Theory promoted by G Stanley Hall asserting that adolescence is inevitably a time of mood disruptions con ict with parents and antisocial behavior Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood At the beginning of the 20th century the median age of menarche in Western countries was about 15 However the median age of menarche declined steadily between 1900 and 1970 before leveling out so that by now the typical age of menarche in Western countries is 125 o Menarche a girl s rst menstrual period The designation of adolescence begins around age 10 Emerging adulthood period from roughly ages 18 to 25 in industrialized countries during which young people become more independent from parents and explore various life possibilities before making enduring commitments Five characteristics distinguishing emerging adulthood from other age periods 0 Age of identity explorations an age when people explore various possibilities in love and work as they move toward making enduring choices I Develop a more de nite identity including an understanding of who they are what their capabilities and limitations are what their beliefs and values are and how they t into the society around them 0 Age of instability lives are often unstable I Frequent moves from one residence to another I Instability in education work and love relationships 0 Selffocused age establish a more independent lifestyle I Focus on themselves as they develop the knowledge skills and self understanding they will need for adult life 0 Age of feeling inbetween not adolescent but not fully adult either I Subjective feeling of being in a transitional phase of life 0 Age of possibilities when many different futures remain possible when little about a person s direction in life has been decided for certain I Tends to be an age of high hopes and great expectations Emerging adulthood exists mainly in developed countries Early adolescence period of human development lasting from about age 10 to about age 14 Late adolescence period of human development lasting from about age 15 to about age 1 8 The Transition to Adulthood Adolescence is generally viewed as beginning with the rst noticeable changes of puberty How does a person know when the transition to adulthood is complete 0 Complex and varies notably among cultures The Transition to Adulthood CrossCultural Themes In developed countries there is a variety of ways one could de ne the transition to adukhood 0 Legally transition takes place at age 18 age at which a person can sign legally binding documents and is eligible to vote 0 Could be age when a person enters roles typically considered to be part of adulthood fulltime work marriage or parenthood In studies young people from their early teens to their late 20s agreed that the most important markers of the transition from adolescence to adulthood are accepting responsibility for oneself making independent decisions and becoming nancially independent Individualism cultural belief system that emphasizes the desirability of independence selfsufficiency and selfexpression Collectivism a set of beliefs asserting that it is important for persons to mute their individual desires in order to contribute to the wellbeing and success of the group The Transition to Adulthood Cultural Variations Virtually all traditional nonWestem cultures believe the transition to adulthood is clearly and explicitly marked by marriage Interdependence the web of commitments attachments and obligations that exist in some human groups 0 Collectivistic value valued more highly than the individualistic value of independence in traditional cultures The Scientific Study of Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood 1 Identify a Question of Scientific Interest a A researcher wants to find an answer to a question that can be addressed using scientific methods b Can be generated by a theory or previous research or something the researcher has noticed from personal observation or experience 2 Form a Hypothesis a Hypotheses ideas based on theory or previous research that a scholar wishes to test in a scientific study b Crucial because they in uence the sampling research methods research design data analysis and interpretation that follow 3 Choose a Research Method and a Research Design a Research design the plan for when and how to collect the data for the study 4 Collect Data to test the Hypothesis a Sample a group of people who participate in a research study b Population the entire category of people the sample represents c Representative characteristic of a sample that refers to the degree to which it accurately represents the population of interest d Generalizable characteristic of a sample that refers to the degree to which findings based on the sample can be used to make accurate statements about the population of interest e Procedure the way the study is conducted and the data are collected 5 Draw Conclusions and Form New Questions and Hypotheses a Statistical analyses are conducted to examine relationships between different parts of the data b Investigators write a manuscript and submit it for review to a professional journal Ethics in Human Development Research Requirements of IRBs and the ethical guidelines of professional organizations usually include the following components 0 Protection from physical and psychological harm I Most important consideration in research on human participants is that the persons participating in the research will not be harmed by it o Informed consent I Informed consent standard procedure in social scienti c studies that entails informing potential participants of what their participation would involve including any possible risks 0 C on dentialily I Ethically required to take steps to ensure all information provided by participants is confidential it will not be shared with anyone outside the immediate research group and results will not identify any of the participants by name 0 Deception and debrie ng I Researchers required to show that the deception in the proposed study will cause no harm I Participants must be debriefed after must be told the true purpose of the study and the reason for the deception Methods and Designs in Research Research Methods Questionnaire 0 Pros large sample quick data collection 0 Con Preset responses no depth Interview 0 Pros Individuality and complexity o Cons Time and effort of coding Observations 0 Pros Actual behavior not selfreport o Cons Observation may affect behavior Ethnographic research 0 Pros Entire span of daily life 0 Cons Researcher must live among participants possible bias Case studies 0 Pros Rich detailed data 0 Cons Difficult to generalize results Biological measurements 0 Pros Precise data 0 Cons Expensive relation to behavior may not be clear Experiment 0 Pros Control identification of cause and effect 0 Cons May not re ect real life Natural experiment 0 Pros Illuminate geneenvironment relations 0 Cons Unusual circumstances rare Adolescence Around the World A Brief Regional Overview SubSaharan Africa Worst performance of any region of the world on virtually every measure of living standards including income per person access to clean water life expectancy and prevalence of disease Consequently adolescents in Africa face challenges to their physical health and survival that are more formidable than in any other region of the world African adolescents typically have many siblings who have close ties of mutual obligation and support North Africa and the Middle East Asia Patriarchal authority cultural belief in the absolute authority of the father over his wife and children Share certain common characteristics and challenges Filial piety Confucian belief common in many Asian societies that children are obligated to respect obey and revere their parents especially the father Asian adolescents are more likely than adolescents in other parts of the world to have a grandparent living in their household Confucian tradition places a strong emphasis on education Caste system Hindu belief that people are born into a particular caste based on their moral and spiritual conduct in their previous life a person s caste then determines their status in Indian society Adolescents in India spend most of their leisure time with their families rather than with their friends and they are happiest when with their families Latin America Two key issues for the 21St century are political stability and economic growth Young people are obtaining more education which should help prepare them for the increasingly informationbased global economy Birth rate has declined sharply the children who are now growing up should face less competition in the job market as they enter adolescence and emerging adulthood The West Young people in the West generally have access to opportunities for secondary and higher education and they can choose from a wide range of occupations Spend most of their time in leisure with their friends rather than studying or working for their families
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