Week 2 - Chapter 2: Biological Foundations
Week 2 - Chapter 2: Biological Foundations Psych 3390
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3390 at Tulane University taught by Fabian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 2 Biological Foundations Cultures de ne the meaning and signi cance of pubertal change Puberty The period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that takes place primarily in early adolescence and prepares the body for sexual reproduction Hormones chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands that affect the development and functioning of the body The Endocrine System Hormonal changes of puberty begin in the hypothalamus Pituitary gland master gland Hypothalamus master of the pituitary gland o In charge of body maintenance temperature eatingdrinking enough maintaining homeostasis levels of glucose fat storage etc o Gradually increases production of gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH I Recent evidence indicates that this occurs once a threshold of body fat is reached I For women have to have enough body fat to get pregnant to maintain a pregnancy and nurse a baby I Fat cells produce leptin satiety hormone that provides the signal to the hypothalamus Pituitary Gland and Gonadotropins o Pituitary gland releases gonadotropins Folliclestimulating hormone FSH and Luteinizing hormoneLH FSH follicle development females sperm reproduction males 9 Females are born with all the eggs they re ever going to have over the years they die off 9 Created in the womb before she s even born LH estrogen secretion ovum development females testosterone production males 9 Ovum immature egg needs to mature Increase in GnRH affects the pituitary gland Gonadotropins in uence production of sex hormones Sex hormones The ovaries and testes increase their production of sex hormones estrogens and androgens Increases in estradiol primary estrogen in females amp testosterone primary androgen in males are responsible for most of the observable bodily changes of puberty Both males and females have testosterone but males have much much more Only one hormone strongly involved in sexual desire testosterone Androgens are also produced by the adrenal glands o Involved in stress response cortisol epinephrine norepinephrine At puberty the pituitary gland increases production of andrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH which causes the adrenal glands to increase androgen production o ACTH 9 oily skin body odor etc Set point when sex hormones reach an optimal level and the hypothalamus reduces GnRH to begin this process Physical Growth During Puberty Girls mature about 2 years ahead of boys Growth Spurts Not all parts of the body grow at the same pace 9 asynchronicity Extremities are the first to hit the growth spurt A spurt in muscle growth occurs primarily because of the increase in testosterone 0 Prior to puberty boys amp girls are very similar in muscle mass Body fat increases for both boys and girls but more for girls Hips and shoulders widen for both boys and girls BUT hips widen more for girls than boys and shoulders widen more for boys than girls Growth of the heart lungs vital capacity increases more for boys Adolescent Obesity Rates About 14 of American adolescents 1217 years old are obese Especially high rates among African Americans amp Latinos Low income 9 Fastfood meals vending machines sodas junk food in schools Decline in physical activity About 80 of obese adolescents remain obese in adulthood Sleep comes into play as well sleep deprived 9 endocrine system suffers brain gets the message that you are in dangerstressed 9 STORE FAT don t burn the fat you need to survive don t expend energy less satiety hormone Homosapien gene pool has not changed much BUT o Adolescents going through puberty much earlier recently is it the chemicals in food Chemical preservatives Use of plastics Is it the obesity rates SO many variables so many things have changed Physical Functioning in Emerging Adulthood Emerging adulthood peak physical functioning least susceptibility to physical illness age 1825 0 Healthiest strongest Biggest threat to health are lifestyle factors However lifestyles often include factors that undermine health 0 Poor nutrition lack of sleep stress inability to cope with it Automobile accidents are the leading cause of death among emerging adults in the US 0 Distracted driving risky driving Homicide is another common cause of death in the US during emerging adulthood Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death Rates of contracting sexually transmitted infections highest in early twenties because of lifestyle factors Rates of substance use and abuse peak in early 20s Combination of a mindset that says I m young I m healthy no one else should be texting and driving but I canI m a better driver when I m drunk I don t see myself getting pregnantSTDs I ll be ne Sex Characteristics Primary Sex Characteristics Secondary Sex Characteristics Boys Production of sperm Hair growth in Development of sex organs growth pubic areas of penis testes underneath arms chest face shoulders and back Skin becomes rougher Sweat glands increase production Girls Production of eggs Development of sex organs growth of vulva vagina ovaries uterus Egg amp Sperm Production Females 0 Born with about 400000 immature eggs in each ovary this drops to 80000 by puberty 0 Once a girl reaches her first menstrual period menarche one egg develops into a mature egg ovum about every 28 days 0 It is only after 4 years of menstruation that girls consistently ovulate with each menstrual cycle 0 No sperm in testes at birth 0 First production of sperm spermarche takes place on average at age 12 o In a typical male ejaculation there are between 30 and 500 million sperm I Each one has a real low chance of getting to an egg The order of Pubertal Events Girls Downy pubic hair 9 Appearance of breast buds 9Growth spurt Growth of sexual and reproductive organs 9Menarche9ecretion of increase skin oil and sweat Development of underarm hair Boys Growth of testes appearance of pubic hair growth spurt lncreased growth of penis deepening of the voice secretion of increased skin oil and sweat development of facial hair Tanner s Longitudinal Research on Pubertal Development Culture and Pubertal Timing Secular trend the downward in the age of menarche has occurred in every Western country for which records exist 0 Drop from 17 in 1800s to 1213 in 1970 0 Could be I Nutrition I Medical care Example Average age of menarche for 0 African American girls in US 122 years 0 African girls in Africa varies widely but none as low as 12 and in some as high as 16 or 17 Age of Menarche and SES SES Socioeconomic status Within countries girls from af uent families tend to menstruate earlier than girls from poorer families Cultural responses to Puberty Puberty Rituals Study of 186 traditional cultures look in ch 1 table I I for de nition 1991 o 68 of cultures had puberty rituals for boys I Typically rituals require the adolescent to display courage strength and endurance have to show what it takes to be a man and need to succeed I Often violent I Public circumcision for adolescent boys in many African cultures 0 79 of cultures had puberty rituals for girls I Menarche is the pubertal event that is most often marked by ritual I Cultural beliefs about the power of menstrual blood mostly negative a danger to crops livestock husbands OR a positive sign of fertility How do parentadolescent relations change at puberty In the American majority culture con ict increases and closeness decreases The physical changes of puberty not age alone lead to the changes 0 Researched based on 122 pairs of mother and children aged 616 Mothers and early adolescents talked more than mothers and younger children suggesting that parentchild communication styles shift toward talking and away from touching when puberty is reached The incest tab00 BUT this distancing does not occur in all cultures Response to Menarche and Semenarche Girls feelings about menarche are usually mixed ambivalence con icting feelings 0 Could make them feel more grown up 0 View it in a more negative way if not prepared totally shocked 0 Girls whose mothers peers or other sources have led them to expect menstruation to be unpleasant report greater discomfort o Premenstrual syndrome PMS a lot of individual variability Semenarche rst ejaculation not usually talked about more of a stigma associated with masturbation 0 Not a lot of research done Early and Late Maturation GIRLS Early maturing girls at risk for o Depressed mood Negative body image Eating disorders Substance use Delinquency aggressive behaviors School problems 0 Con ict with parents More likely to associate with older boys an older group of friends OOOOO Late maturing girls 0 Possibly teased 0 Negative body image 0 But likely more favorable body image by late teens Early and Late Maturation BOYS Early maturing boys 0 More favorable body image 0 Higher popularity 0 Also more likely to be involved earlier in delinquency sex substance use Late maturing boys 0 Compared to those who mature on time higher rates of alcohol use and delinquency 0 Lower grades Nature vs Nurture Debate over the relative strength of nature and nurture on human development 0 Nature genes 0 Nurture environment The theory of genotype 9 environment effects 0 BOTH genes and environment affect our development but dif cult to untangle because genes in uence which environments we experience 3 forms of genotype 9 effects 0 Passive Occur in biological families because parents provide both genes and environment I Parents passed on the genes and set up the environment for you 0 Evocative A person s inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in their environment 0 Active People seek out environments that correspond to their inherited characteristics