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Week 3 Notes

by: N3koKikyu

Week 3 Notes 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002

GPA 3.5
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)

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Week 9/15/15 and 9/17/15 notes Enjoy!
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by N3koKikyu on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002 at George Mason University taught by Keith D Renshaw (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 09/18/15
Tuesday September 15 2015 Psychology 100 Ethics in Research Must consider effects on participants potential benefits should outweigh potential costs Check in book institutional review boards informed consent confidentiality debne ng Biological Bases of Behavior Heredity Hormones Nerves Brain Basic Structures Neurons Basic nerve cells Dendrites gt take in information from any neuron it is touching chemical form then it triggers a response Soma Cell Body Axon Tuesday September 15 2015 myelin sheath terminal buttons axon terminus gt link up with other dendrites but DO NOT TOUCH leave a tiny bit of space Synapse gt the tiny space between the terminal buttons and the dendrites of another neuron Neuron Firing Resting potential Negative charge inside axon when at rest it s hanging out not doing anything Graded Potential changes in charge that make firing moreless likely Action potential charges goes from negative to positive neuron fires All or none it either happens or it doesn t Synaptic Transmission Neurotransmitters chemicals used in brain to transmit signals from one neuron to another stored in synaptic vesicles in terminal buttons of axon 1 Produced 2 Released 3 Connect to receptors 4 Reuptake gt when neurotransmitter comes off of the dendrite and gets absorbed into the terminal button See photo below Tuesday September 15 2015 39005 or q V399139I 0 a l 1 J quot O Q w I f V 3quot g s r Nervous system Peripheral Nervous System connect Central Nervous System CNS to body Somatic Voluntary muscles arm movements checking rearview mirror Autonomic involuntary muscles beating heart breathing sweating heart racing Sympathetic use energy triggered by adrenaline ex fight or flight response Parasympathetic Tuesday September 15 2015 Conserve energy think after thanksgiving after you eat your body goes slow down you just gave us a lot to deal with sogo sit downnap food coma digestion Central Nervous System Spinal Cord Immediate reflexes touch something hot and you jerk away fast Brain More complex processes Inner lower parts of brain most basic Outer layers most complex Specialization refers to different parts of the brain are responsible for different things Brain Specialization Brain Stem base of brain basic functions breathing heartbeat Forebrain largest part of brain inner portion motivation emotion memory outer portion complex reasoning thinking planning Cerebral Cortex or Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum Outer layer of brain RightLeft Hemispheres Tuesday September 15 2015 Right controls left side artistic visualspatial Left controls right side verbal logical reading language math FourLobes Occipital Vision Temporal Hearing Parietal balance spatial tasks touch Frontal muscle movement executive functions Plasticity flexibility in functions of brain areas gt brain can compensate for damage Collateral sprouting one part of brain is damages and neurons from near by grow toward that area so that they can pick up the duties that used to be there Neurogenesis new braincells develop over time Thursday September 17 2015 Psychology 100 Genetics amp Environment Nature amp Nurture Genes gt determine how cells develop heredity nature Environment gt external influences on behavior ect nurture HOW DO YOU COMPARE THEM Twin Studies Monozygotio identical twins SAME GENES DIZYGOTIC fraternal twins DIFFERENT GENES If raised together same environment Identical twins are more likely to have this twins that look the same but act completely different have grown up with different environments Adoptive Studies Biological relatives more similar genes Adoptive relatives more similar environment Evaluate Methodology Sensation amp Perception Sensation input from sense organs Perception selection organization and interpretation too much information Absolute threshold Thursday September 17 2015 smallest magnitude that is detectable 50 of the time Sensory Adaptation Habituation gt we get used to something and when we get used to it we notice it less Novel Stimuli gt Signal detection theory gt we are most likely to perceive things that are relevant or important Cocktail Party effect gt you are at a party and you are with a group and chatting there is noise everywhere and you hear your name being called and your attention is towards who said it not because you are egotistical but your brain is designed to pick up on things that are important and relevant like your name Difference Threshold gt the amount of change that occurs for you to notice the amount of change is proportional to how big is music is at volume 10 and you turn it down to 9 no one will notice but if it s at a 2 and you turn it to 1 that is very noticeable Vision System Sensation Thursday September 17 2015 Re na Cones color receptors strong visual acuity Fovea center of retina Rods blackwhite receptors lower visual acuity most concentrated directly outside fovea Color Vision color depends on wavelength of light Light reflects off objects black absorbs all light white reflects all light Trichromatic Theory Three types of receptors for different wavelengths red blue and green differential firing in each of these types of receptors causes color sensation colorblindness type of cone might be missing doesn t explain everything though Opponent process theory afterimages gt complementary colors 3 groups of receptors redgreen blueyellow whiteblack Thursday September 17 2015 Excitation Inhibition excites one part of receptor and inhibits complementary part green EXCITE green and INHIBIT red Afterimages gt from firing of over inhibited receptor Two theories combined Perceptions How we select organized and interpret senstory input use prior knowledge and heuristics topdown processing bottom up processing


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