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How Do Microbes Kill Us? Lecture 2

by: Charlene Scavone

How Do Microbes Kill Us? Lecture 2

Marketplace > George Washington University > Biology > How Do Microbes Kill Us Lecture 2
Charlene Scavone
GPA 2.1

Tara Scully

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Notes for the BISC 1005 Lecture on 9/2/14, covering the parts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Tara Scully
One Day of Notes
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This 9 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Charlene Scavone on Tuesday September 2, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 242 views.


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Date Created: 09/02/14
9214 BISC 1005 Why Can a Single Celled Organism Kill You Multicellularitv vs Colonv colonial organisms loose groups of cells that cooperate for mutual benefit but can also exist independently eg shower mildew biofilms multicellular organisms big incapable of living independently cell specialization division of labor different genes are expressed by different cells The Plasma Membrane every cell has a plasma membrane prokaryote without a nucleus or eukaryote containing a nucleus the membrane has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions the hydrophobic or water repelling portions prohibit substances from moving across the membrane the hydrophilic or water tolerant portions allow substances to move across Prokarvotic vs Eukarvotic Cells most prokaryotes bacteria viruses etc have a tough cell wall outside the plasma membrane some bacteria have a slippery protective layer called a capsule eukaryotes are characterized by membrane bound organelles that confer speed and efficiency through intercellular division of labor however plants fungi and most protists have a cell wall the structures of the prokaryotic cell include plasma membrane cytosol uid Within the cell ribosomes recipes for protein production prokaryotic agellum aids with locomotion pili allows the exchange of DNA between cells nucleoid region within which DNA is housed Prokaryotes lack a nucleus Eukaryotic cells are far more complex and their organelles are classified by the Eukaryotic Division of Labor Eukarvotic Division of Labor protein production lipid production lipidsfats ATP production ATPenergy recycling and Waste management infrastructure Protein Production in order to make proteins DNA must be synthesized into RNA this occurs in the nucleus Where the cell s DNA resides the nucleus has a double membrane studded with nuclear pores these pores provide an exit point for substances leaving the nucleus the nucleolus houses all of the genes that manufacture ribosomes the RNA is created in the nucleus it leaves through the pores and oats through the cytosol to meet up with the ribosomes The nuclear envelope has openings called nuclear pores 395 quot areg2z Nuclear envelope quotz3 l r A 1 2 iquotf I 391 DNA with associated Ribosomes and some types of RNA molecules exit through the nuclear pore RNA are made in the nucleolus to direct protein synthesis on ribosomes Discover Biology 5e Figure 69 2012 W W Norton amp Company Inc the ribosomes will manufacture proteins based on What the RNA says there are several different types of proteins free proteins are immediately Viable just oat aimlessly in the cytoplasm organelle proteins plasma membrane proteins secreted proteins the last three are more complicated and require further processing the double membrane of the nucleus extends out to form the endoplasmic reticulum Where proteins are processed proteins go to the rough ER so called because it is studded with ribosomes 5quot TRANSPORT VESICLES Budding vesicles capture hydrophilic molecules in the lumen as well as hydrophobic proteins embedded in the membrane Lumen of ER Smooth ER lacks ribosomes and is a site for lipid manufacture r 1 Ribosomes V Rough endoplasmic reticulum Fusion with another membraneenclosed 39 p A compartment transfers Rough ER has ribosomes associated with cargo from one it and is a site for protein production organelle to another Discover Biology 5e Figure 610 Discover Biology Sle Figure 61 1 2012 W W Norton amp Company Inc 9 2012 W W Norton 3 Company Inc once processed the proteins are taken to the golgi where proteins are sorted by transport vesticles in the golgi the proteins are processed further and sorted and then sent out to the appropriate locations THE GOLGI APPARATUS All A Vesicle being formed Free vesicle 7 being received Proteins and lipids are chemically modi ed as they transit from one Golgi compartment to the next Golgi stack Discover Biology Sle Figure 612 O 2012 W W Norton 8 Company Inc Lipid Production the smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays a part in lipid production lipids are formed in the lumen empty space in the smooth ER the lumen also captures perceived toxins and destroys them lipids like proteins are moved to and sorted by the golgi THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Z J P 39 quot Z 3quot 39quot 7quot 39h39quot u 39 8Z Smooth ER lacks ribosomes and is a site for lipid manufacture II Rough endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER has ribosomes associated with it and is a site for protein production Discover Biology 5le Figure 610 2012 W W Norton amp Company Inc Recycling and Waste Management organelles age and are subsequently replenished lysosomes contain enzymes that break down old material and amino acids in plant cells vacuoles large sacs full of uid act much like lysosomes to break down macromolecules vacuoles also store ions and Water soluble molecules as Well as noxious compounds to deter herbivores and pigments vacuoles also provide turgor pressure which makes the nonwoody parts of plants rigid PLANT VACUOLES Li p Watersoluble pigments are C H H stored insidevacuoles in the 9 quot3 cells ofthefruit Chloroplasts Discover Biology Sle Figure 614 0 2012 W W Norton 8 Company Inc ATP Production ATP provides the energy for all reactions that take place Within the cell the mitochondria produce ATP in a process called cellular respiration sugars O2ATP CO2 H20 all eukaryotes have mitochondria chloroplasts in plants make the sugar for cellular respiration through photosynthesis and produce the pigment chlorophyll THE CHLOROPLAST Summary of Photosynthesis THE MITOCHONDRION Light energy Outer Inner co quot390 Sugm 0 membrane membrane lntermembrane l space Outermembrane chiomphsr lnnerrnembrane EquotV939 P Summary of Cellular Respiration 139hyakoid mebe Sugars 02 H20 I V pp gt7 7 g V V Thylakoid space 39 v 39 Thylalroid membranes contain the chemical energy pigment chlorophyll which plays a ltey role in absorbing light energy Discoverliology Sle Figure 615 Dmm w 5 W 16 D 2012 W W Norton I Company Inc 0 2011 w w Norton ampany Inc Infrastructure the cell s scaffolding is comprised of a cytoskeleton comprised of many proteins rnicrotubules tubulin subunits intermediate filaments rnicrofilaments actin monomers microfilaments enable cell crawling via their consolidation into pseudopodia which occurs in cells that engulf other cells eg White blood cells cells also have cilia hairlike projections that probe for foreign objects or can be used to move cells through liquid the cilia are a hugely important component of respiratory cells as they probe for foreign objects inhaled into the lungs and attempt to get rid of them eukaryotic agella are similar to cilia in structure eukaryotic agella differ from prokaryotic agella they probably evolved separately prokaryotic agella move their cells by spinning eukaryotic agella move their cells by swishing back and forth Whiplike all sperm cells have agella Microtubules are hollow rods J Actin laments are twisted cables of that organize the cell interior and protein that confer shape to animal facilitate intracellular transport cells and enable cell contraction or crawling movements in some cell types Microtubules Micro laments Intermediate laments are ropelike proteins that provide reinforcement and mechanical strength Discover Biology Sle Figure 617 D 2012 W W Norton 8 Company Inc How Do Microbes Kill Us extracellular microbes multiply outside the cell produce a substance that causes harm cause an imbalance in the normal ora intracellular microbes enter into cells and survive produce a substance that causes harm kills the cell by multiplying causing it to burst toXins endotoxins lipopolysaccharidesstructural structural adaptations to the microbes such as spikes that damage cells exotoxinsproteinsproduced mainly as defense The Endosymbiotic Origins of the Mitochondrion THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC ORIGINS OF THE MITOCHONDRION predatory cell membranes eukaryotlc cell Infoldlng p u of plasma membrane j quotL Prokaryote Mitochondria Discover Biology 5e Figure 621 2012 W W Norton amp Company Inc mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally prokaryotes engulfed by a cell they were not destroyed due to the benefits of these cells synthesizing sugar and producing a lot of ATP for the host cell mitochondria have their own DNA and the ability to produce proteins supporting this theory


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