Chapter 3 cont'd and 4
Chapter 3 cont'd and 4 Criminal Justice 101
Popular in Introduction to American Criminal Justice System
Criminal Justice 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Criminal Justice 101 at Ball State University taught by Jennifer Christman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Introduction to American Criminal Justice System in Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 3 Con nued And Chapter 4 The 4 characteristics of Criminal Justice broken down Discretion Of cials freedom to act according to their own judgment and conscience Who exercises discretion 0 Police 0 Prosecution o Judges and Magistrates some laws have incarceration minimums that limit discretion 0 Correctional Of cials Resource Dependence Criminal justice agencies depend on other agencies for funding 0 Criminal justice officials depend on politicians and voters they make the budgets Criminal justice officials seek positive coverage from the news media Sequential Tasks Decisions must follow a speci c sequence 0 Key elements in the exchange relationship among decision makers who depend on one another to achieve goals Filtering Process 0 At each stage of the criminal justice process many cases do not pass on to the next stage 0 Cases are ltered out for dozens of reasons Police Four major duties 1 Keeping the peaceoften done with police presence 2 Apprehending violators and combatting crime 3 Preventing crimepresence providing services assistance 4 Providing social servicesevents referrals for assistance etc Cou s Responsibilities Adjudication a formal judgment on a disputed matter Disposition is not a process or event in some duration in time but rather the state preparation or tendency of a structure quotin waitingquot Postconviction remedies a court proceeding with sentencing of a guilty party appellate process US Dual Court System 0 State Courts local often violent crimes 0 Federal Courts national immigration issues drug human traf cking and nancial crimes Corrections 0 More than 7 million Americans are under the supervision of a correctional system everyday 1 of 32 adults Major responsibilities 0 Provide custodial services for sentenced individuals 0 Provide community based correctional programs ow of decision making in the criminal justice process in book Police courts corrections and prosecution have a working relationship of exchange Criminal justice Wedding Cake Model The celebrated oases ll Serious or quothighprofilequot felonies T 1 Ill Less serious or ordinary felonies mf 939 A WMisdemeanors Crime and Justice in a Multicultural Society READ IN THE BOOK Racial and ethnic minorities are subjected to the criminal justice system more often than their white counterparts 45 of felony defendants in the 75 largest counties in America were in African American although they only comprised 14 of the population 0 African American men are sent to jailprison at a 6 times greater than whites Disparity and Discrimination Disparity difference between groups that can be explained by legitimate factors 0 Ex Groups committing more crime Discrimination occurs when groups are differentially treated without regard to their behavior or quali cations 0 Ex Decisions based on race or gender Explanations for Racial Disparities o Minorities commit more crime 0 The criminal justice system is racist 0 American society is racist Chapter 4 Two Types of Criminal Law 1 Substantive law de ning acts that are subject to punishment and specifying the punishments for such offenses quotpenal codequot 2 Procedural law de ning the procedures that criminal justice of cials must follow on enforcement adjudication and correction Sources of Criminal Law 0 Common law of England 0 Based on custom and tradition as interpreted by judges o Took the form of collected opinions ofjudges Rulings on speci c cases translated into law Use of precedents American colonies maintained the English procedures until they gained independence 4 Sources of American Criminal Law 1 Constitutionsnational and state 2 Statuteslaws passed by legislative body 3 Court decisions case law 4 Administrative regulations Crime Classi cation Felonies more serious crime punishable by a prison sentence over a year or death Misdemeanors less serious dealt with leniently nes probation short jail time less than a year