PSY 335 Week 3 Notes
PSY 335 Week 3 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bria Harris on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
PSY 335 Psychology of Childhood Week 3 Lecture Notes September 15th and 17th Review Questions 1 What is the Marshmallow experiment What did it examine In this experiment children were presented with a marshmallow They had the option of eating the marshmallow right then or waiting 20 minutes and getting 2 marshmallows This experiment examines delay of gratification and effortful attention 2 Correlation does not equal causation What 2 problems prevent us from knowing cause in a correlation study Direction of causation and 3rd variable problem It is not possible to tell from correlation which variable is the cause and which is the effect correlation between 2 variables may arise from both being in uenced by a 3rd variable 3 What are tow methods infants use to learn and retain knowledge prior to birth Habituation and the Pacifier test Fetuses decrease responses to repeated or continued stimulation Increase stimuli decrease response Babies suck more on pacifier if they recognize events presented to them prior to birth eg stories 4 What is the most common risk to prenatal development Miscarriages Nature and Nurture Both hereditary and environmental in uence individuals characteristics When scientists first investigated contributions of heredity and environment they generally emphasized one factor or the other as the prime in uence Recent efforts to map the human genome established people differ from one another by only 115 of their genes Three Key Elements of the Model Genotype genetic material of a person their DNA Phenotype observable physical expression of the genotype including body traits and behavior Environment includes every aspect of the person amp their surroundings other than their genes Four Fundamental Relations Parent39s Genotype Child39s Child39s Environment Genotype Child39s Phenotype 1 Parent s genetic contribution to the child s genotype Genetic material is passed on as chromosomes molecules made up of DNA Carry all of the biochemical instructions involved in the formation amp functioning of an organism Genes sections of chromosomes that are the basic units of heredity for all living things 2 Contributions of the child s genotype t 0 his or her own phenotype Although every cell in the body contains copies of all the genes you received from your parents only some of those genes are expressed Why Regulator genes largely control the continuous switching on amp off of genes that underlie development across the lifespan o A given gene in uences development amp behavior only when it s turned on eg regulator genes as the superintendent of a building Gene Expression About 13 of human genes have 2 or more different forms known as alleles The dominant allele is the form of the gene that is expressed if present eg B big B The recessive allele is the form of the gene that is not expressed if a dominant allele is present eg b little b A person who inherits 2 of the same alleles for a trait is described as homozygous eg BB or bb A person who inherits 2 different alleles for a trait is described as heterozygous eg Bb Genetic Transmission of Diseases Over 500 human diseases amp disorders are presently known to have genetic origins Recessive gene PKU Chromosome 12 sickle cell anemia the presence of hemoglobin S Tay Sachs disease Chromosome 15 cystic fibrosis both parents are carriers for the disease parents are heterozygous for disease Single dominant gene Huntington s disease neurofibromatosis 1 parent is the carrier Polygenic inheritance Cancer asthma heart disease autism many genes cause this psychiatric disorders Sex linked inheritance male pattern baldness red green colorblindness 1 in 10 men hemophilia clotting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy fragile X syndrome FMRI Chromosomal anomalies Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 Kleinfelter s XXY Turner Syndrome X0 3 Contribution of the child s environment to his or her own phenotype As the model indicates the child s observable traits results form the interaction of kids environment and genes PKU Kids with phenylketonuria PKU a disorder that s related to a defective gene on chromosome 12 are unable to metabolize phenylalanine With early diagnosis amp a restricted diet children can grow up without any problems However mental retardation can occur if not treated 4 In uence of the child s phenotype on his or her environment Children are active creators of the environment in which they live Parts of a Neuron Neuron specialized cells that are the basic unit of the brain s information system Cell body component of the neuron that contains the basic biological material that keeps the neuron functioning Dendrites conduct impulses towards the cell body Axon long shaft that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body Glial Cells Form myelin sheath provide support and protection for neurons Cells in the brain that provide a variety of critical supportive functions Play a role in communication within the brain In uence the formation amp strengthening of synapses Cerebral Lateralization The cortex is divided into 2 separate halves called cerebral hemispheres which communicate through the corpus callosum The 2 hemispheres are specialized for different modes of processing a phenomenon called cerebral lateralization Lobs of the Brain Temporal Memory processing of emotion amp auditory information Occipital Visual information Parietal Spatial processing amp integrates sensory input with information in memory Frontal Planning amp executive function organizes behavior Seeing Thinking amp Doing In Infancy Perception Sensation refers to the processing of basic information from the external world by sensory receptors in sense organs amp brains passive Perception process of organizing amp interpreting sensory information about objects events amp spatial layout of the world active Both events happen unconsciously Vision Research methods for studying infants vision Preferential looking technique amp habituation Preferential looking Show infants 2 patterns at the same time amp show their preference parent is blindfolded look at what pattern kid looks at longer Visual Activity Born with poor visual acuity Approaches that of adults by age 8 months amp reaches full adult acuity by 6 years old Young infants prefer to look at patterns of high visual contrast because they have poor contrast sensitivity ability to detect differences in light and dark areas In addition very young infants have limited color vision although by 23 months their color vision is similar to that of adults Infants would rather look at something than look at nothing Visual Scanning Scanning 1 month olds a scan the perimeters of shapes 2 month olds b scan both the perimeters amp interiors of shapes Tracking Although infants begin scanning the environment right away they can t track even slowly moving objects smoothly until 23 months Faces From birth infants are drawn to faces because of a general bias toward configurations with more elements in the upper half than the lower half of the face From paying attention to real faces infants begin to prefer the faces of their mother over other individuals Understanding of different facial expressions Infants look longer at faces that adults find more attractive than those adults rate as less attractive amp interact more positively with people with attractive faces Same or Different As adults you no doubt can tell the 2 men apart easily but you may still not be sure whether 2 monkeys are different or not Why These skills of differentiation are not necessary fro survival Pattern Perception Pattern Perception Subjective contour Infants can also perceive coherence among moving elements Object Perception Perceptual constancy perception of objects as being of constant size shape color etc in spite of physical differences in retinal image of the object Summary of Vision Acuity not great at birth but develops quickly Color vision around 23 months Infants scan the periphery initially amp then look at the inner features Infants have a preference for faces and facial configuration Infants can discriminate faces and non faces very early on Other perception tolls fro vision develop early the ability to perceive patterns objects and depth Auditory Perception Although the human auditory system is relatively well developed at birth hearing does not approach adult levels until age 5 or 6 Newborns turn towards a sound a phenomenon called auditory localization Infants are remarkably proficient in perceiving subtle differences in human speech Music Perception Recent research evidence suggests a biological foundation for music perception Infants share the strong preferences adults have for some musical sounds over others Infants also respond to rhythm in music amp are sensitive to melody showing habituation to the same tune regardless of pitch eg Baby dancing to Beyonc Taste amp Smell Sensitivity to taste amp smell develops before birth Newborns have an innate preference for sweet avors Newborns prefer the smell of breast milk amp by 2 weeks appear to able to differentiate the scent of their own mothers than other women Touch Infants learn about the environment through active touch Oral exploration dominates for the 1St few months Around 4 months infants gain greater control over their hands amp arm movements amp gradually takes preference over oral exploration eg stop putting everything in their mouth Intermodal Perception Combining of information from 2 or more senses is present from very early on in life Very young infants link sight amp sound oral amp visual experience amp visual amp tactile experience Eg Guy s mouth close your eyes hear 1 sound watch video and listen hear 2 sounds Sight and Sound Findings Video of baby watching lady when woman smiled and made a happy voice the baby smiled when the woman looked sad amp sounded sad the baby began to frown 4 months can integrate sight amp sound Wide range of phenomena 0 Emotion Facial expressions with voice 0 Gender Male voice with male face 0 Speech Sounds Vocal sounds with mouth movements 0 Speech Synchrony Soundtrack with mouth movements 0 Number Items in a display with a number of drumbeats Sight and Touch Babies suck on a smooth or bumpy pacifier without seeing the pacifier Show baby a picture of a bumpy or smooth pacifier 1 month olds even newborns can integrate looking amp touch correspond eg babies that had a smooth pacifier looked at the photo of the smooth pacifier amp visa versa Sight amp Proprioception Imitation at birth newborns can make their own facial expressions match another persons Motor Development Re exes Newborns demonstrate re exes innate fixed patterns of action that occur in response to particular stimulation Current Views on Motor Development Previously believed to be an element of neurological maturity Current theories however often take a dynamicsystems approach Illustrating the Dynamic Systems View Research by Esther Thelen amp colleagues examined the stepping re ex The infants performance of stepping movements when the baby is held under the arms amp feet touch a surface Thelen performed 2 tests to hypothesize that increases in infants weight made it impossible to execute stepping motions Hence movement pattern amp neural basis remain but is masked by the ratio of leg weight to strength
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