Sociology 1101--Ch 4 and Lecture Week 3
Sociology 1101--Ch 4 and Lecture Week 3 Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology) at Ohio State University taught by Steven Lopez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 672 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Sociology llOl Week 3 Chapter 4 Socialization Socialization Defined as quotthe process through which individuals internalize the values beliefs and norms of a society and learn to function as its member Achieves two things 1 Gives us an identitydefines our personality 2 Leads to the reproduction of a particular culture and society You know all of the things you should and shouldn t do because you were socialized but an android one that hasn t been socialized at least doesn t know the difference between slang terms normal actions and jokes Alan Turing developed a way to test if a computer can act as a human If the subject can t tell the difference in conversation with a human from the computer the computer passesbut most don t pass for long Adding in facial expressions body language and other nonverbal communication cues causes the artificial intelligence to fail Limits of socialization Nature or nurture Both and neither It s not a definitive answer but help us understand and describe our social world We re not a blank slate at birth and we have innate qualities BUT experience also can shape our social skills Ex body tells you that you need to pee but socialization tells you when and where to do so Theones Charles Horton Cooley coined the term the looking glass self we imagine how we present ourselves to others how others evaluate us and develop beliefs about ourselves based on that Misperceptions are as important as accurate perceptions ex teaching kids to be cooperative by praising kids for sharing So in this perspective people develop personalities from the interactions and praisefeedbacks from others George Herbert Mead Infant s only know the I then learn the quotmequot then eventually develop a sense of other someone outside themselves socialization gets us up to this point The other half aka generalized other which represents an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings develops as we live and gather new information as an individual He developed the Stages of Self 1 Preparatory Stage imitation usually copying parents and play by themselves 2 Play Stage role taking understanding that each person has their own role that they have to play that is different from their own 3 Game Stage can cope with the existence of multiple roles in the same setting changing into different roles to work in a group to accomplish a goal End result of full socialization quotThe generalized other meaning that children are able to imagine what they look like to other people Erving Goffman Presentation of Self Dramaturgical approach we re all actors on the stage of our life Impression management in different role contexts manipulating how others see us The more complex the society the more complex our livesroles can be The roles ARE who we are there s nothing underneath You have to pretend to know what you re doing in the role quotFace work refers to the work of having to recover from a slip up in your role when you vary from what is expected so how do you recover Using comedy Apologies Summary Cooley self as a reflection of other s behavior Mean selfachieved in stages by active role taking Goffman we work on ourselves constantly by engaging in impression management Agents of Socialization Famiies children gain experience and socialization through their families Twoway street of socialism meaning that the children socialize their parents too Ex teaching them how to use phones computers etc natural growth vs overscheduled children middleclass families makes their children become more structured with higher aspirations more work less free time Lowerclass parents rely on natural growth as the child fills the free time with whatever they please So the lowerclass children tend to not be able to reach goals they desire because they don t have the developed skills or connections from their parents Schoolchildren s new locus of socialization becomes peers and teachers the new reference group Prepschools at private institutions allow for social networks with wealthier people and may give access and benefit for the rest of their lives Peers many adolescents spend a great deal of their time with others these others reinforce taught rules from home and conformity is generally expected peer pressure Look to peers for advice rather than parents but know that it may not be as nearly as reliable MediaHow does it impact us Affecting us negatively or positively ex Sesame Street Still up for debate on how it influences socialization Tota institutions An institution that controls all the basics of daytoday life such as eating sleeping bathing etc Ex College army prison Adult Socialization the things we learn as adults during activities such as jobs Resocialization can be critical if you go through major changes such as moving to a new country suffering huge memory loss andor changing schools Social Interaction Robert Merton s needtoknow vocabulary status a recognizable social position that an individual occupies Multiple types ascribed status what you were born with achieved status what you becomeobtain master status the one status that stands out andor overrides all the others the reason people interact with you mainly status set refers to all the statuses you have given at any time role the duties and behaviors associated with a particular status role strain the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status role conflict the tensions felt by an individual who is filling two or more roles that conflict Gender roles sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one s status as male or female Candace West and Don Zimmerman argue that gender roles don t effectively capture status because of the extreme confidence that sex is a master status in our society treat babies differently from the moment they leave the womb based on their sex CJ Pascoe explored how teens in high school reinforce gender roles quotFag discourse using quotfagquot to insult other males to curtail improper behavior Groups and Networks Every social group has a network structure People within the group can be represented as quotnodesquot and the connections between them as quottiesquot As you add nodes the complexity of the group increases Weak ties can bring two social networks together by the quotsocial entrepreneur the persons connecting the groups The Social Construct of Reality Something is real meaningful or valuable when society tells us it is Symbolic Interactionism Theory we interact with others using words and behaviors that have symbolic meanings according to the individual culture Three basic tenets 1 Human beings act toward ideas concepts and values based on those meanings 2 These meanings are a product of social interaction 3 These meanings are modified and filtered through an interpretive process that each individual uses in dealing with outward signs Dramaturgical theory has its roots in Shakespeare but generally credited to Goffman that life is essentially a play a play with a moral of sorts Morals quotimpression management We re struggling to impress our audience who also happens to be actors in our play Also realizing the distinction between frontstage and back stage arenas when it s private vs public and what s acceptable in each Face is the esteem in which an individual is held by others hence quotsaving face in an embarrassing situation We use opening to signal the start of an encounter quotCivil inattention means refraining from socializing directly with someone even if you know them until an opening bracket has been issued ex eye contact a wave etc quotGiven gestures signal a closing ex putting on your coat and putting your books away near the end of lecture quotGiven off gestures are unconscious signals of our true feelings ex saying quotit s delicious but then grimacing after each bite Ethnomethodology Harold Garfinkel Involves thinking critically about the interactions we have every day Garfinkel sent students to breach social norms to see what happened ex facing backwards in an elevator Note Technology has completely changed interactions now we just go off of the script and the opening and closing brackets may become very blurred We also have new quotvirtual realities and changes society s definitions of words like quotstealingquot Stealing a candy bar from the local gas station vs stealing someone s credit card information
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