BIOL 1040 lecture notes, 3/1-3/10
BIOL 1040 lecture notes, 3/1-3/10 BIOL 1040
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Stewart on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Sarah Stewart BIOL 1040 Exam 3 notes Chapter 42: The Immune System Lecture given 3/1/16 • Can fight off pathogens with barriers (skin and mucous membranes), nonspecific internal defenses (phagocytosis, natural killer cells, inflammation), and specific immune response (cell-mediated and humoral immunity). Innate immunity – a series of defenses that act immediately upon infection • Invertebrates rely solely on this, can consist of o Exoskeleton o Low pH o Enzymes o Immune cells capable of phagocytosis • Vertebrates have innate and adaptive immunity o Skin and mucous membranes o Interferons o Neutrophils – phagocytic cells o Natural killer cells - attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells o Macrophages o (Most of these are modified white blood cells) o Complement system • Tissue damage triggers the inflammatory response, can disinfect infected tissues and limit the spread of infection Sarah Stewart BIOL 1040 Exam 3 notes • Can be localized or widespread; some bacteria may make it to the bloodstream if not disinfected fully, causes bacterial infection • Bacterial infections bring about inflammatory response leading to septic shock – high fever, low blood pressure Lecture given 3/10/16 Lymphatic system – a branching network of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes (filter out bacteria, but can swell up), and circulating lymph (similar to interstitial fluid, but has less nutrients) • Lymphatic vessels – collect fluid from body tissues, return lymph to blood • 2 main functions on lymphatic system: o To return tissue fluid to the circulatory system o To fight infection • As lymph circulates, it collects microbes, parts of microbes, and microbial toxins; transports these to lymphatic organs where macrophages ingest toxins and lymphocytes have an adaptive response Adaptive immunity (acquired) – a set of defenses found only in vertebrates that is only activated after exposure to certain pathogens • Slower response, recognizes specific pathogens (antigens), and has a “memory” • Our cells are labeled with unique surface membrane proteins (MHC markers) that characterize cells as ours, distinguish these from foreign particles o Self – able to respond to things that are a part of us Sarah Stewart BIOL 1040 Exam 3 notes o Non-self – what triggers an immune response, is not a part of us Antigens – any outside substance that elicits an adaptive immune response; can be viruses, bacteria, dust, etc. – anything foreign • While antigen receptors are very specific, antigens themselves can bind to several different cells and their antigen receptors Lymphocytes – white blood cells responsible for adaptive immunity, originate from stem cells in the bone marrow • Different types of lymphocytes o B lymphocytes (B cells) – continue to develop in the bone marrow; humoral immune response o T lymphocytes (T cells) – develop further in the thymus gland to mature; cell-mediated immune response o Both of these finish maturing in lymphatic organs (lymph nodes, spleen) • B and T cells differentiate from each other and other cells during maturation by forming antigen receptors in their plasma membrane; all antigen receptors on a certain cell are identical and respond to only one antigen • Together, B and T cells ward off diseases and infection in both body fluids and cells – every person has common and unique responses to certain antigens Clonal selection – model for adaptive immunity dealing with antigens • A certain B cell is selected and multiplied in response to an antigen Sarah Stewart BIOL 1040 Exam 3 notes • Some of these B cells become effector cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood and lymph • Others become memory cells, used if antigen encountered again • Primary vs. secondary immunity o Primary response occurs at the first encounter with an antigen, slow o Secondary response occurs at the second encounter with an antigen, faster o Both activate effector cells and memory cells