ANFS251 Week of 03/07/16
ANFS251 Week of 03/07/16 ANFS251
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANFS251 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Lesa Griffiths in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Animal Nutrition in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Vitamins Organic substances required by animal tissues in very small amounts Some animals are able to synthesize certain vitamins in their tissues or utilize vitamins synthesized by microorganisms in the GIT Vitamin and mineral pre-mixes are available Classified as water or fat soluble B-Complex Vitamins B1 Thiamine B2 Riboflavin B3 Niacin B5 Pantothenic Acid B6 Pyridoxine and Pyridoxamine B12 Cyanocobalamin Rarely deficient Usually overfed Functions Many water-soluble vitamins function primary as cofactors of enzymes o Involved in enzymatic functions (biochemical reactions throughout the body) Fat-Soluble Vitamins – deficient in ruminants o Vitamin A: involved in vision and in maintaining the epithelial cells o Vitamin D: involved in Ca absorption and bone deposition o Vitamin E: metabolic antioxidant o Vitamin K: normal blood clotting Tissue Distribution Storage o Mainly in the liver o Also in the kidney and spleen o Most stored vitamins are bound to specific proteins Released at the rates necessary to maintain a relatively constant level in the blood Important in milk o Sole food source for newborn animals o Colostrum: especially high in vitamin content Absorption and Metabolism Absorbed primarily from small intestine B-complex and K o Monogastrics: synthesized in large intestine o Ruminants: synthesized in rumen and large intestine Almost no dietary requirements for these vitamins Production of K is efficient in most animals Pantothenic Acid and B12 need to be supplemented Ability of monogastrics to absorb vitamins synthesized by their intestinal tract varies with the vitamin and the species Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed less efficiently in upper intestine than water-soluble vitamins o More efficiently absorbed if there is dietary fat and adequate bile in the GI tract Many vitamins consumed in forms that have no biological activity o Transformed into an active form of the vitamin o i.e. Vitamin D (absorbed in from the sun, converted into usable forms) Plants produce many different carotenoid pigments, but only a few can be converted to vitamin A Deficiencies Similar symptoms of vitamin deficiencies o Anorexia (reduced appetite), reduced growth, dermatitis, weakness, muscular incoordination o Vague symptoms that can be associated with other issues o Some vitamin deficiencies cause additional specific symptoms Vitamins that may be deficient under practical conditions often vary o Among different classes of livestock o And with age Ruminant main concern is A Swine main concern is B, choline, A, D, E Poultry main concern is almost all vitamins Dietary Energy Feeding standards based on some measure of energy Additional requirements for protein/amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals Energy derived from the dietary organic components Carbohydrates provide the bulk of energy Low cost per unit of energy Energy Amount of heat produced when a compound is complexly oxidized in the body The loss of energy from the body Different units o Calories Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1C calorie (cal) Kilocalorie (kcal) = 1000cal Megacalorie (Mcal) = 1000kcal or 1000000cal o British Thermal Units (BTUs) o Joules Work: anything above maintenance that uses energy (i.e. lactation, gestation, running, growing, pulling) Gross Energy (GE): amount of heat produced when a feed is completely oxidized (burnt) Digestible Energy (DE): measure of the amount of energy apparently absorbed from a feed after it has been consumed and digested Metabolizable Energy (ME): determined by subtracting energy losses in urine and combustible gases from the DE value Net Energy (NE): determined by subtracting energy losses resulting from rumen fermentation and tissue metabolism from ME Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) Method to estimate energy content of a feed Sums up all fractions of a feed that are digestible TDN = Digestible CP + Digestible CF = Digestible NFE (starch and sugars) + 2.25xDigestible Ether Extract (fat) Tends to overvalue roughages – not accounting for indigestible fiber Widely used because values to plug into the equation are easily accessible Factors Affecting Energy Metabolism Greatest energy loss in feces o Feces Dietary components that are not digested Diet components greatly influence the amount of feces produced o Level of feed consumption also influences digestibility Diarrhea, presence of toxins, and parasite infections reduce digestibility Monogastric diets are more digestible than herbivorous/ruminant diets Losses associated with metabolism Losses after absorption vary greatly o Level of intake o Quality of diet Fermentation Heat o Produced as a result of microbial fermentation in the GIT o As nutrients are oxidized o Referred to as heat increment Largest heat associated with metabolism of proteins/amino acids>carbs>fats o Microbes are generating heat just by living in the gut of ruminants Barrels of hay that are sitting in barns can spontaneously combust from the heat that the microbes sitting in that hay are giving off Energy requirements are affected by: o Age o Species o Activity level o Production level o Environmental conditions o Nutrient deficiencies Requirements directly related to body surface area (metabolic body weight) o Management practices influence the surface area of the animal and change the rate of heat loss i.e. factors that affect heat/cold stress Blanket on the horse to keep in metabolic heat – requires less food Comfort zone: range of temperatures in which an animal does not need to use energy to cool/heat itself o Feeds that have high feed increments are harder to digest (versus low feed increments) Straw = high feed increment o If the body is super hot, appetite decreases – produces less metabolic heat Solution: concentrate the diet to insure the animal gets the correct amount of nutrients in the small amount of food it’s eating Energy Deficiencies Wild species may go through alternating periods of energy surplus, adequacy, and deficiency o Trend follows seasonal availability of feed Free-range domestic animals may also experience fluctuations in energy surplus and adequacy o Fluctuations occur because of unregulated pastures Deficiency extremes are less severe Owners feed them supplements o Animals in confinement should not experience such extremes Periods of energy deficiency can negatively impact the animal o Fat reserves are metabolized for energy weight loss Very common in lactating animals After all the fat is metabolized, muscle starts getting broken down – malnutrition! Life Cycle Nutrition Continuous development and growth from birth of one generation to the birth of the next generation Broken into discreet stages – each stage has nutritional priorities Neonate Growing animal Young adult Adult Reproduction Senescent (aged) Neonate Energy thermogenesis o Shivering to generate body heat o As animals grow, they gain the ability to control their body heat Brown fat = rapidly metabolizable form of fat that can be burned for energy Some born with glycogen stores that can be burned for energy Glucose = required energy source for the brain Lactose = glucose + galactose, milk sugar Suckling phase o Easily digestible and high quality nutrients (found in milk) o Requirements of energy, amino acids, vitamins, minerals per unit body mass are higher for younger or smaller animals Weaning Adaption to change in diet Wet, highly digestible drier, highly variable nutrients, poorer quality, less moisture Adaption o Enzymes – proteins! o Changes in gene regulation is a gradual process (times time) Begin feeding food before removing milk source o Nutritional stress Digestive upset, disease/inflection Diarrhea, gas, constipation, gastroenteritis Diarrhea = #1 killer of baby animals Can damage digestive tract o Psychological Stress Disrupt eating, digestion, heart rate, liver metabolism Consider process, provide system Plan weaning Feeding transition
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