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HDF 100 Week 2

by: Megan Notetaker

HDF 100 Week 2 HDF 100

Megan Notetaker
GPA 3.56

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About this Document

Lecture notes covering theory and research.
Introduction to Human Development
Dr. Bruce Covey
Class Notes
Theory, research, HDF 100, central michigan university, Bruce Covey
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Notetaker on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Dr. Bruce Covey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
January 25, 2016—Lecture 3 HDF 100 Theories of Development What is a theory?  A theory: o Formulations of apparent relationships among observed events o A good theory:  Allows us to predict behavior—maybe Types of Theories:  Grand theories: o Theories that describe universal processes and development throughout the entire life span  Mini theories: o Theories that seek to explain specific aspects of development o They do not attempt to explain the whole of development  Emergent theories o Theories that are relatively new o Often a combination of mini-theories Psychoanalytic Theory  Sigmund Freud (psychosexual) o Sexual drives and interest guides human behavior o Stages of psychoanalytic theory  Oral stage (infancy)  View the world by putting things in the mouth; the need to eat  Anal stage (early childhood)  Control for the child; potty training  Phallic stage (preschool years)  Child starts to have a crush of someone of the opposite sex; usually the parent or a teacher  Latency (school years)  We repress these sexual desires (“boys are eww”)  Genital (adolescence>adulthood)  Teenage years sexual desires become less repressed  Erik Erikson (psychosocial) o Student of Freud  Believed in the power of unconscious and early experience o 8 Stages of development  Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-18 months)  Trust someone to take care of our needs; develop trust with person or vice versa  Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt (2-3 years)  Like having control but what happens when we are told we cannot (Shame or doubt)  Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 years)  Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11)  Identity vs. Role Confusion  Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40) Behaviorism  John B. Watson: grandfather of behaviorism o Believed only observable behavior could be scientifically tested and measured; if I can see it, I can observe it  Based on the study of conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) o Stimulus + Response=learning o Classical conditioning  The process of associating a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus  Operant conditioning (B. F. Skinner) o Operant conditioning  Pleasurable response=we are more likely to repeat behavior  Painful response=we are less likely to repeat behavior o Reinforcement  Any consequences that follows a behavior that makes a person more likely to repeat the behavior Social learning  Social cognitive theory (Albert Bandura) o Humans can learn from observing others without experiencing any reinforcement  Modeling o A person observes actions of another person and then copies them  Example: “Show me how dad plays golf.”  Self-efficacy o The belief that people are able to change themselves and alter their social context  Example: the social role of pro-sport athletes Cognitive Theory  Focuses on changes in how people think over time o Our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors  Jean Piaget o Believed cognitive development occurs in 4 stages  1. Sensorimotor (birth to 2): everything we do is based on senses  2. Preoperational (2-6): magical time; not abstract  3. Concrete operational (6-11): very black and white  4. Formal operational (12 and up): abstract thought o Cognitive equilibrium:  State of mental balance o Cognitive disequilibrium:  Ideas that we don’t what do with them; decide what to do with those ideas o Criticism of Piaget:  May have underestimated the capabilities of children  Cognitive skills may develop gradually rather than in stages January 27, 2016—Lecture 4 Lecture Notes Research and Human Development: The Scientific Method  The scientific method helps control subjective bias 5 steps: o Formulate a research question o Develop a hypothesis  A specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted o Test the hypothesis o Draw conclusions from the data o Make findings available to the larger scientific world  Allows for the replication of the research, using the same procedures, on another group of participants to verify or refute the original study’s conclusion  How our body of knowledge is built upon Hypothesis can be tested using four different methods: 1. Observations: behaviors that is systematically and objectively recorded a. Occurs in naturalistic setting (can also take place in a laboratory) b. Tries to be unobtrusive c. Example: daycare in EHS 2. Experiments: where one or more variables are manipulated and changes in other variables are measured a. Independent variable i. Variable that is manipulated by the experimenter b. Dependent variable c. Experimental group: i. The group that got the treatment/drug d. Control group i. The group that did not get the treatment/drug 3. Surveys: information that is collected from a large number of people a. Questionnaires i. Example: surveymonkeys b. Pros: i. Ability to collect a lot of information ii. Relatively easy to conduct c. Cons: i. Wording of questions can bias answers; cause answers to be changed ii. Lying on questions 4. Case Studies: intense study of one individual or situation a. Asking about past history b. Current thinking c. Future plans d. Can provide unanticipated insight e. Pros—rich information f. Cons—very time consuming, small samples i. Hard to generalize findings with a small sample to larger population Qualitative vs. Quantitative  Quantitative research: NUMBERS (1=an answer) o Survey or experimental method o Can be translated into numerical data  Qualitative Research: o Observations or case studies o Seek to answer “why” a particular phenomena occurs Elements of a Research Article  Title o Includes names of authors  Abstract o Synopsis of the research  Introduction o Explains the background for the research o Reviews existing research literature  Methods: o Describes the method used in the research  Results: o Explains the findings of the research  Discussion o Where the authors discuss their findings o Draw conclusions  References


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