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HDF 100 Week 3 and 4 Lecture Notes

by: Megan Notetaker

HDF 100 Week 3 and 4 Lecture Notes HDF 100

Marketplace > Central Michigan University > HDF 100 > HDF 100 Week 3 and 4 Lecture Notes
Megan Notetaker
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Lecture Notes of both week 3 and 4. Covers heredity and birth.
Introduction to Human Development
Dr. Bruce Covey
Class Notes
HDF 100, central michigan university, Bruce Covey, Heredity, birth
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Notetaker on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Dr. Bruce Covey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
February 1, 2016 Genes and Heredity What is a chromosome?  Every cell contains chromosomes o X shaped structure composed of genes o Found within the nuclei of the cell  46 chromosomes=23 pairs o ½ from mother o ½ from father What is DNA?  The genetic instructions for every living thing  Makes every person different from each other o Besides identical twins  Is made up of 4 base elements: o Adenine o Thymine o Cystosine o Guanine What is a gene?  Segment of DNA  Contains the instructions for creating certain proteins  Genes play a vital part in determining the physical features of an individual o Some traits are determined by single pair of genes o Other traits are polygenic  Determined by several pairs of genes  Sometimes diseases need more than one gene Cell reproduction  Mitosis o Cell replication in which the cell divides and duplicates itself o 2 identical cells  Meiosis o Cell division that forms eggs and sperm o Divides itself o Divides again with ½ of genetic information going to the new cells  Is it a boy or a girl? o Sex is determined by the 23 pair of chromosomes  XX=girl  XY=boy o Sex is determined by the father’s chromosomal contribution  50% chance of X  50% chance of Y  However, it can also be determined by other factors Genotype and Phenotype  Genotype o An organism’s entire genetic potential  Phenotype o All of the observable characteristics of a person  Physical appearance  Personality  Intelligence  Some genes dominate others o Example: color blindness o Due to an X chromosome mutation o Therefore, men (XY) are more likely to have color blindness  There is no “spare” X chromosome, like women (XX) Chromosomal Abnormalities  Down Syndrome—aka trisomy 21 o A result of having 3 copies of chromosome #21  Individuals show physical signs as wells as cognitive and motor delays  The levels of down syndrome vary—it’s a spectrum  Chances increase with mother’s age o 1 in 800 for a 20 year old woman o 1 in 16 for a 44 year old woman Twins  Monozygotic twins o Twins who originate from one zygote o Shares 100% of the same genetic instructions  Dizygotic twins o Twins who originate from separate zygotes o Share 50% of genetic instructions  Environmental factors can have large impacts o Nutrition—what the mom eats o Teratogens  Epigenetics o Environmental factors that affect genes and genetic expressions o Resulting in a phenotype that is markedly different from the genotype Chapter 4: The First Two Years Physical Development  February 8 What about Mom?  Recovery after birth o Depends on the method  C­section: 2 weeks worth of recovery  “Normal birth:” couple of days o Few days to a few weeks  Changes o Hormone fluctuation  o “Baby Blues:”  Slight depression   Usually not knowing how to be mom o PPD  Postpartum depression  Possibly 1 in 5 mothers o Postpartum sonorous:  Mother loses connection with reality and starts to hear voices  telling her to kill her children.   Rarest form  Nutrition:  Breast is best in almost all situations o Contains more nutrients than either cow or goat milk o Is more digestible for the baby  In some instances, bottle feeding is a better option  o Mom not producing enough nutrition that baby needs. Infant Body Changes  Average size birth: o 7.5 pounds (less than a gallon of milk) o 20 inches   Weight doubles by fourth month; triples by first birthday o Typically 30 pounds by 24 months (second birthday) o Approximately 36 inches Sleep:  Infants sleep on average 17 hours a day   Most sleep is REM o Rapid Eye Movement: eyes are moving back and forth; deepest sleep and  where dreams happen  Patterns of sleep slowly start to emerge  Influenced by: o Diet o Parenting practices o Maturation   A question facing many new parents is whether to allow co­sleeping or not  Cultural differences o Parents in many cultures sleep with their infants o The “Family Bed:” Everyone sleeps in the same room in the same bed  Co­sleeping children sleep as much as children who sleep alone.  Brain Development:  Brain structures o The cortex:  Frontal cortex  Auditory cortex  Visual cortex o Neurons:  Axon  Dendrites   Synapses  Neurotransmitters  Reflexes: o Simple, automatic responses elicited by certain types of stimulation o More (startle) reflex:  o Rooting reflex o Palmar (grasping) reflex o Stepping reflex  Reflex to Control o Around age 3­4 months, infants replace reflex with control   Ulnar grasp: full hand o 9­11 months  Pincer grasp: smaller grasps with finger tips o 1 year  Able to hold objects in both hands Senses   Senses vs. Perception o Sensations:  When sense detect a stimulus o Perception:  When the brains processes a sensation   The 5 Senses o Hearing­most acute at birth  Habituation: when you come accustomed to new sounds  Example: baby hearing dog bark after awhile o Seeing  Least developed at birth; usually a blob   Can only see objects 4­30 inches away  3­5: acuity reaches that of most adults o Taste, smell, touch  Also acute at birth Motor Skills  Gross motor skills o Large body movements o Sitting up develops gradually  Unsupported by 6 months o Children learn to crawl between 8­10 months  Some children do not learn to crawl/creep o Most children walk by 12 months  Depends on strength, brain maturation, and practice  Fine Motor Skills  Infants have a strong reflexive grasp  o Lack finger and hand control  By 4 months, infants can grab but aim and timing are off o Putting things in mouth  Infants are able to practice feeding themselves around 18 months Cognitive Development in Infancy—Week 2 February 10 Brief Background:  Children were treated as “little adults” o Worked in factories  Started full-time work by age 12 o Could legally drink, smoke, and be sent to adult prison  Child mortality was high o 10% in the United Kingdom  Study of children developed in early mid 1900’s  G Staley Hall: First to say that children develop differently; they are not adults on a small scale Intelligence  Jean Piaget o Prominent theorist in child development o Believed that:  Children were active learners; seen the world through the sense  Cognition develops in 4 stages:  Sensorimotor: o Six stages:  Primary circular reactions: baby’s body is how they see the world; based on the 5 senses  Stage of reflexes (birth-1 month) o Reflex>Sensations>Cognition  Acquired adaptions (1-4 months)  Secondary circular reactions: reactions that involve the child and another object or person  Ability to make interesting events last (4-8 months) o Shake a rattle; smiling back  Adaptation and Anticipation (8-1 year) o The ability to anticipate an action o Giving an empty bottle back to parent o Object permanence: objects still exist even if they cannot be seen  Peek-a-boo but move hands  Tertiary Circular Reactions:  Active experimentation (12-18 months) o “Little Scientists” o Want to know about their surroundings; sticking things into outlets  Mental Combinations (18-24 months) o Able to combine 2 or more ideas together o Intellectual experimentation o Deferred imitation  Copying behavior observed earlier  Preoperational  Concrete Operational  Formal Operational


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