Notes week 4
Notes week 4 EXSC 223 001
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EXSC 223 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chase Heffron on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 223 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Thompson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Physical Education at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Week 4 Interphase Continued S phase DNA is replicated in this phase Helicase unwinds the DNA a DNA polymerase attaches to each separated strand The polymerase that is on the leadino strand takes free nucleotides and matches the base pairs to create a new strand of DNA On the old template strand DNA polymerase produces the lagging strand From the lagging strand fragments are produced It makes copies of pieces of the old template strands These fragments are called okazaki fragments There is a process that lls in these gaps between fragments to repair this strand of DNA This is often where errors are made in DNA replication At the end of the S phase DNA in the cell is doubled and there are two identical copies of DNA 62 Phase growth and nal preparations before division This phase also has a checkpoint to make sure the cell is ready for mitosis Mitotic Phases Prophase First phase the cell enters in mitosis Early prophase involves the centromeres parting ways in the cell and moving towards separate poles In early prophase the nuclear envelope is still visible In late prophase the nuclear envelope disintegrates The centromeres have also moved to opposite poles and reformed microtubules The microtubules attach to the protein called kinetochore that is associated with each sister chromatids The microtubules push all the sister chromatids to the center Metaphase Once all the sister chromatids are lined up in the center of the cell this is the metaphase The microtubules have attached to the kinetochore on both sides of the sister chromatids Anaphase this is when the sister chromatids separate They split and half go to one side of the cell half go to the other side Teophase A Nuclear envelope begins forming around the chromatids on each side of the cell A cleavaoe furrow forms at the middle of the cell and begins to split the cell Cytokinesiscell division There are 2 cells at the end of this process Two proteins CDK and cyclin These two proteins regulate the progression through the life cycle Both of these proteins are necessary to progress through the cell cycle They work together Levels of cycin uctuate sometimes not present sometimes there is a lot When cycin and CDK are together the cell advances through the cell cycle When there is only CDK the cell is stuck in 61 When the cell is done with mitosis the cell eliminates all cycin In 61 cycin gets tagged with ubiquitin and the proteasome degrades the cycin It is eliminated so the cell does not undergo mitosis too early At the 61 checkpoint cycin begins to get produced It continues to be produced in the S and 62 phase At the end of the 62 phase there is the mitotic promoting factor MPF When there is enough MPF the cell will enter mitosis The regulation of the cell cycle is based on the amount of cycin in the cell Read pgs 14 and 15 and 140 and 141 Tissue a group of cells that work together to perform a related function Tissues also include non cellular material The extracellular matrix is the material outside the cell Histology is the study of tissues 4 Types of tissues we39ll only talk about two this chapter Nervous Tissue cover it later Muscle Tissue cover it later wont be on exam Connective Tissue Epithelial Tissue Sheets of cells that line a body surface or body cavity ex Skin inside of cheek There are two major types 1 covering or lining epithelium 2 glandular epithelium Functions 1 protection 2 digestion Epithelium is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the food we digest 3 ltrations 4 excretion 5 secretion the release of something manufactured by cell ex Sweat 6 sensory reception Epithelia has special charactaristics 1 Polarity There is an apical surface exposed and a basal surface side you don39t see the basal surface reacts with the basement membrane Epithelia can be multiple layers of cells but there is always an apical and basal surface 2 specialized contacts epithelia cells do connect to the extracellular matrix through these contacts 3 supported by connective tissue the basement membrane has 2 layers The basal lamina and reticular lamina 4 innervated but avascular can have nerve endings and receptors but has no blood vessels running through it 5 regeneration can be regenerated Epithelia cells can be classi ed by there shape Sguamus attened these cells are wider than they are tall Cuboidal about same height as width Columnar much taller than they are wide They are also classi ed by how many layers Simple single layer of cells Strata two or more layers of cells Simple Squamus this is a thin single layer of epithelium The thinner the layer the more rapid diffusion occurs Simple squamous is found commonly in areas where rapid diffusion takes place lungs Simple cuboidal single layer of cuboidal Lots of active transport in these cells These are found in the kidneys and they absorb and secrete Simple columnar tall single layer of cells They can be ciliated or not ciliated They are found in the gastrointestinal column They play an important role in the absorption of nutrients All nuclei in these cells are located near the basal surface Pseudostrati ed columnar not uniform layer of columnar cells Goblet cells specialized epithelial cells that produce mucus They are mixed between the columnar cells Pseudostrati ed columnar cells have many more goblet cells that simple columnar Strati ed squamous Many layers of squamous cells These is seen in the skin among other regions of the body Transitional Epithelia It can transition from strati ed to simple These line the bladder As the bladder stretches out the layer of epithelial cells stretches out Pictures will not be posted on the exam for identi cation of epithelial cells Glandular Epithelium Gland consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product Endocrine glands ductless glands release hormones directly in the extracellular space of the body Exocrine gland a gland that secretes to the outside of the body It is these glands that relate to glandular epithelia Ex mucous sweat oil saliva bile mammary Uniceluar exocrine glands single celled exocrine glands ex goblet cells Goblet cells produces mucin a protein that when mixes with water gets thick and sticky Found in respiratory tract and intestinal tract In some regions the epithelia is primarily goblet cells Multicellular exocrine olands multicellular glands have two distinct regions the duct and the secretory region The cells that make up the gland secrete their product into the duct There are simple duct structures and compound duct structures Simple duct structures involves a single duct connected to the gland and the compound duct involves separate branches of the duct that all lead to a single duct Modes of Secretion Merocrine This is exocytosis Cells release their product through exocytosis Holocrine Cell produces product inside of itself until the cell ruptures Test 2 Material Connective Tissue incudes many tissues found all over the body All connective tissues arise from the same embryonic cell type mesenchyme Functions 1 binding and supporting 2 protection 3 insulation 4 transportation of substances or heat within body Common properties 1 common orgin originate from mesenchvme embryonic cell type that gives rise to all connective tissues 2 contain extracellular matrix made up of ground substances and bers 3 Degrees of vascularity some have a rich blood supply some are avascular Structural elements 1 ground substances 2 bers 3 cells Ground substances unstructured material between cells 1 cell adhesion proteins they connect tissue cells to matrix elements These include laminin and bronectin 2 proteoglycan a large complex structured molecule Unlike cell adhesion proteins they do not bind things together Their primary job is to attract water They are secreted by cells into the extracellular space purposely to bring water Proteins on the proteoglycan have a negative charge The hydrogens on water interact with the proteoglycan molecule 3 interstitial uid Fibers made of proteins Most abundant ber is collagen Collagen most abundant and important protein in body Enormous tensile strength large capacity to resist being pulled All tendons are made of collagen Collagen is a secreted protein Found in two principle forms sheet like form and cord like form It can form cross links with other collagen bers When you slow cook meats you break down the collagen making the meat more tinder Elastic bers very stretchy and will recoil after being stretched These are found intermixed with collagen bers Amount of elastin determines how stretchy and able to recoil something is Found in skin lungs and blood vessels Reticular bers very small bers used to form small lter like networks found in a lot of places but particularly in the spleen and lymph nodes They trap red and white blood cells in these organs Any organ made with reticular bers will not be very strong Connective tissue are de ned by where they have come from All connective tisues and muscular tissues arise from the middle layer of the embryonic tissue the Mesoderm Connective tissue particularly rise from the mesenchyme 4 stem cells in the mesenchyme give rise to all connective tissues 1 Fibroblasts responsible for producing most ground substance and most bers quotblastsquot can still divide and produce bers A matured broblast is a brocyte A quotcytequot is a matured cell that39s job is to maintain 2 Chondroblast produce lots of new cartilage Chondrocytes produce very little new cartilage 3 Osteoblast produce bone Responsible for producing new bone Osteocytes no longer divide 4 Hematoooietic stem cells give rise to new blood cells Embryonic mesenchyme embryonic connective tissue gives rise to all connective ssue Loose areolar CT produced by broplasts Made up of collogen and elastic bers with broplasts This tissue is found as part of the basement membrane Loose adipose CT These are fat cells derived from broblasts Loose reticular CT found in spleen and lymph nodes Made up of reticular bers comes from broblasts Dense regular CT little ground substance little open space Lots of bers 2 lines of stress so all the bers run along together Found in tendons and ligaments Dense irregular CT bers run in a variety of different directions Fibers run oriented along lines of stress Multiple lines of stress Found in dermis of the skin brous capsules of organs and ofjoints
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