ANTH 320 Notes 3/8/16-3/10/16
ANTH 320 Notes 3/8/16-3/10/16 ANTH 320
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
ANTH 320 Notes 3/8/16-3/10/16 3/8/16 - Lesotho not classified as farmers (according to Ferguson) because don’t use agriculture as primary economic activity o Most workers are migrant laborers in mines - Cattle not classified as “non-productive” because while may not be economically productive, serve a different productive purpose (social status, relationships) - Lesotho Intervention Projects: o Range management and grazers association Program only had 10 participants and 1,500 hectares Didn’t work: members seen as betrayers of community o Livestock marketing Regularly scheduled cattle auctions (taxed) Sales don’t indicate increased economic activity or commercialization of livestock Shows how many people are desperate for cash Only sell cattle in emergency o Improved stock, locally produced fodder Smaller amount of good quality animals (larger) Need supplemental feed, produced on croplands Didn’t work because community saw more value in quantity than quality Fodder production took away ability to produce food on cropland - Differences in ideologies between developers and Sesotho: o Power and status Developers primarily value technical and economic elements Developers view Sesotho as ignorant when refuse to raise/sell cattle as commodity Developers don’t recognize connection between mining careers, community status, and marriage roles o Women agree with developers (for most part): Want to use earnings for immediate household needs Argue for economic values - Reasons state don’t back development projects: o State needs political support from rural communities o State wants to encourage rural communities to stay where they are- don’t want overflow into cities o Want to increase commercial activity and capital through taxes o Want to be partners with international aid agencies o Can tolerate economic failure, but not political failure - Failures of development projects: o Potato project o Slaughterhouse o Wind power irrigation: clerical error caused failure o Water systems o Solar ovens: ovens didn’t work o Fish project: died from overfeeding - Ferguson doesn’t focus on specific success or failure o Focus on long-term effects that are actually causing change - Unintended outcomes in Lesotho: o Extension of state: New roads connect rural to city Government offices replace project offices Post offices and tax offices Military outposts Government have a better knowledge of rural regions o Creation of technical and depoliticized state Extension of state makes people politically passive People don’t challenge state action State becomes neutral instruments of execution of plans Neutral because plans derive from facts/technical knowledge Government becomes group of technicians to create economic growth Perpetuated by embedded discourse of economics and need for technical expertise State continues to promote material benefits for powerlful elites State power/role challened by advocates of minority rights Opposition of interests (state vs. minorities) 3/10/16 Black Gold Movie Notes: -Ethiopia= world’s largest producer of coffee -low prices for high quality coffee -coffee prices used to be regulated, but collapsed in 1989 -now very low payment for coffee producers -coffee sold for a lot of money in other countries- western world profiting off of coffee -market prices determine buying prices -Westerners are picky about bean quality -union aims to give growers more money for their work -growers need to have food for family, shelter, and clean clothes- not getting paid enough to have these -payment needs to increase 10 fold to achieve this goal -growers say only 5 fold increase would be a huge difference- able to change lives for better -grower’s children not able to attend school because they are in poverty -low payment affects entire family and entire community -problem with monoculturecommodity goods -forced to sell harmful narcotic plant (chat) instead of coffee because get higher price for it- only do it for money -difficult to farm other things (other than coffee) -other commodity farmers struggling -no subsidies for farmers like in US and other rich countries -World Trade Organization (WTO) sets rules for global trade -made up of 148 countries meet to negotiate rules -trade is more important to Africa than aid -negotiations unfair for developing countries- European Union (EU) has more delegates, negotiations made behind closed doors -Africa can’t participate in their own negotiations -Africa asks for removal of subsidies for farmers in wealthy countries -many dependent on emergency food aid -education suffering because there’s not enough money from coffee to build schoolhinders future development (vicious cycle) -Africa’s share of World Trade fallen to 1% -just 1% increase would increase revenue to $7 billion, makes huge difference