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Bio Notes Chapter 28-30

by: Claudia Sanchez

Bio Notes Chapter 28-30 BIO 1802

Claudia Sanchez
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chapter 30 unfinished
Biology Concepts II
Mike Madritch
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claudia Sanchez on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1802 at Appalachian State University taught by Mike Madritch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology Concepts II in Biological Sciences at Appalachian State University.

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Date Created: 03/10/16
Bio 1802 Notes Chapter 28 & 29: Sex, Green Algae & Seedless Plants - Reproduction • Asexual: - Binary fission (prokaryotic) - Mitosis (eukaryotic) - advantage: fast & low cost - disadvantage: lack of genetic diversity • Sexual: - Meiosis - turns diploid (2n) cell to haploid (n) cell - Fertilization - union of two haploid cells • Gamete - always haploid - has to undergo fertilization (fuses with other gamete) - generally sperm & egg • Spore - reproductive cell that can grow into a new individual - sometimes haploid, sometimes diploid • Zygote - product of fertilization - diploid cell - Life Cycle Patterns • Animal - gametic - diploid dominant • Fungal - zygotic 1 - haploid dominant • Plant - sporic - alternation of generations • sporophyte generation - diploid • gametophyte generation - haploid - Vascular Plants • 3 organs: - roots - stem - leaves • stem & leaves wax outer layer with cutin to stop water loss • stomata - surrounded by guard cells - stoma - hole between guard cells - respiration & photosynthesis require gas exchange; CO 2& O 2 go in/out of stomata - 2 - Plant Tissue • Vascular Tissue - Xylem Tissue • Trachead Cell - in all vascular plants - lined with lignin - strong waterproof chemical - “plumbing of plant”; allows water & minerals to flow - flows from roots up - hollow & dead yet still functionally active - Phloem Tissue • responsible for carrying food • located next to xylem flows from “source to sink” ; from leaves to wherever growth is happening • Chapter 30: Evolution & Diversity of Modern Gymnosperms & Angiosperms - Seed plants evolved from seedless vascular plants - Critical Inovations: • Pollen - new male gametophyte - 3-6 celled airborne structure - does not need water - encased in sporopollenin Ovule • - new female gametophyte - integuments surround megasporangeum 3 - called seed when completely mature - anywhere from 7 - 3,000 cells • Seeds - embryo embedded in ovule develops into seed - 3 generations: • maternal sporophyte tissue (seed coat and nucellus) • gametophyte • daughter sporophyte (embryo) • Vascular Cambium - wood production - apical growth responsible for length - vascular cambium responsable for growth in width/girth - Gymnosperms (300 mya) • “naked seed” produce exposed seeds rather than being enclosed in fruits • • Cycadophyta aka Cycads - “Palm-like” - male & female plants - distinctive reproduction; beetle pollination - produce coralloid roots; green ring due to cyanobacteria (nitrogen fixing) • Gingkophyta aka Gingko tree or Maidenhair tree - Male & female - monotypic (only one living species) - 270 mya • Gnetophyta - unsure if gymnosperm or angiosperm 4 - gnetum, ephedra, welwitschia - ephedrine alkaloid used as dietary supplement (banned by FDA), congestion medicine, etc. • Coniferaphyta aka Conifers - pine trees/trees that make cones - evergreen needles/leaves (live longer than 1 year) • only some are deciduous (drop leaves) - 300 mya; first seed plants - ~500 different species - adaptations: • tracheads with bordered pits (stops embolisms) • needle-like/scale-like leaves & evergreen leaves (ready for photosynthesis & get a lot of water) • conical shape & flexible branches (can withstand harsher weather) • production of resin (protection from pathogens & herbivores) - Angiosperms (135 mya) • Critical Inovations: - Flowers • complex reproductive structures • specialized for efficient production of pollen & seeds • sporophyte dominant - advantage: diploid cells are more complex & pollen makes for better dispersal - Fruits come from flower • • contain seeds - Endosperm 5 - Vessels Common • Diversification of Flowering Plants: - Darwin’s “abominable mystery”; how did flowering plants pop up so quickly with major success/diversity? - All belong to phylum anthophyta; 3 groups: • magnoloids • monocots - petals in 3’s - parallel veins - herbaceous (not “woody”) eudicots • - petals in 2, 4 or 5’s - netted veins - some are herbaceous & some are woody 6


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