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Test 2 Notes

by: Tyler Dollar

Test 2 Notes hist 1020

Tyler Dollar
GPA 3.15

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These are the notes needed to take Test 2. It covers the industrial Age along with the enlightenment period with in it
World History II
rebecca powell
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Dollar on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1020 at Auburn University taught by rebecca powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 320 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
Friday, February 12, 2016 Test 2 British India - Religion was a justification for Empire - Charles Darwin: Survival of the Fittest, spawns scientific racism - Rudyard Kipling: “The White Man’s Burden” : British man born in India - Concept of British Superiority was put on from Birth in with their alphabet - The Second root of frustration was with the Entrance exam for the Indian National Congress, the exam took place in London and only one Indian Man was on the Council - Resolution 4 called for the entrance exam to be given in India and London and for the test to be the same so no manipulation can happen - Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948): Served on the INC, looked to help gain India independence, Study in London but returned to India, Felt that the glass ceiling applied to him also - Another important event: The Massacre at Amritsar (April 1919): Troops opened fire on protester due to the British using a piece legislature of Anti-Terrorism to justify it - A year after Gandhi formed his non cooperation unit to gain India’s independence - 1. - 2. Economic Independence: His realizes that the British were using India for its resources, called for the people to rely on their on manufacturing to survive - He also focused on salt because it was so heavily taxed - 1947 India was given independence and Pakistan was created - it was called Gandhi’s heartbreak: The Partition The Victorian Era - Coincides with the reign of Queen Victoria - Values: Empire, Science, Hard Work, Progress, Stability, Material, Prosperity, Christian morality, Social Reform 1 Friday, February 12, 2016 - Crucial for understanding the sense of nationalism during WWI - The Murder of Helen Jewett: Skull had three large gashes and half the body was burnt, A jury of peers was formed to observe the crime scene. Robinson was put to trial but was not guilty. - Scientific Advancements: Second Industrial Rev. - Urban Reforms: public health, housing - New Rights: education, labor, vote - Mass Leisure: Museums,sports,theatre, fiction : as a result of the creation of the 8 hour work day - Creation of modern consumer: department store - RISE OF NATIONALISM Second Industrial Rev. Electricity : Steel: Chemicals Petrolium Inventions: Thomas Edison’s Light Bulb, Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone, Wright Brothers Henry Ford’s Assembly line changed the way of production. Made a faster product and was important because it made a car more accessible because it was cheaper Chemistry and Medicine: Great Britain did not invest in Saw a sway away from herbal remedies and a much cheaper product Medicine begin to appear to for every disease and was more price affordable Victorian Era: Social reform London Population 1850: 2.7 m 1900: 6.6 m Due to housing reform Education Act: Made it mandatory for education between ages of 6-12, it was state financed so it was free 2 Friday, February 12, 2016 boys would receive a more liberal education girls would receive less math no science and more domestic skill courses Gender Division in Education Public Heath Act: Meant to deal with public health crisis, All new construction must have running water and internal drainage: Created public sewage system Housing Act (1890): Inspectors had free reign to inspect, also could fine land lords, Friedrich Engels: Karl Marx: Communist Manifesto: argued that the history of society is a class struggle, Class Struggle was needed for change. Outcomes: Classes Society, Progress and greater wealth for all. Their message was exciting to workers because it gave them meaning Reforms in the Realm of Work: Unemployment Insurance, Minimum Wage, Extension of voting rights, 8 hour workday, Weekends/Holidays Women Wage Work: Teachers 2/3 Women, Seamstresses, Secretarial Work, Sales Clerk The Passionless Ideal: That women should not focus on men but on their own self worth and career and that a perfect will happen if she focuses on herself first The New Woman: Out in Public, Independent, Single, Employed, Mobility, Power, Delayed Marriage Typewriter Girl: Becomes a female world where they would be pay less than men Flower Girls: Poor Women would gather flowers, it challenges the ideal of the passionless ideal, Some of the women who participated in prostitution. 3 Friday, February 12, 2016 The rise of Feminism: International Movement, Divided by different agendas and programs for political change, Origins in the European Enlightenment, “Echo” of the French Revolution and Industrial Revolution Catherine Beecher: Feminism Voice Emmeline Pankhurst: public protest for the vote: Women’s Social and Political Voice founder Emily Davison: friend of Pankhurst, at the Epson Derby she was trampled by the kings horse and died 4 days later 1918 Representation of the People Act: Female property owners over 30 years old 1928: Universal Suffrage Mass Leisure: Crystal Palace, Beach ,Sports Nineteenth-Century Empires - European (later USA and Japan) What makes imperialism possible? - Superior Militaries, New Technologies, The Exploitation of Local Conflicts, Native Collaborators. - The Scramble for Africa and can be describe as invasion, occupation and annexation. - Great Britain was the first but not the only to Africa - European countries included Great Britain,France, Spain - The Suez Canal acted as the invitation for Britain to enter Africa just has the sequoiy rebellion was Queen Elizabeth was her invitation into India - It became the first salt water passage from Mediterranean and Red Sea - Egypt king wanted to charge people to use the Canal. 4 Friday, February 12, 2016 - He went to Britain first but they passed due to they had no interest in building infrastructure. - France took part and help funded the Canal as they saw a chance to get ahead - With the canal built Great Britain is now interested - With the debt rising from the Canal Egypt sells its shares to Britain - Britain then acquired the canal by military occupation - One advantage the British early on was military technology - The British had the repeating rifle called the Maxim Gun. - Other countries were interested in Africa but had no way in due to Britians military power - The Berlin Conference was called but they knew if they did not included Britain there was no chance of getting in. - Africa was divided into spheres of influence for countries and that everything was out on the table for communication and visibility with other countries - Varieties of Resistance: Direct (War/Rebellion), Emulation and Political Mobilization, Everyday Resistance The Maji-Maji Rebellion 1905-1907 - The Rebellion occurred in Tanzania - The Germans as they entered they began to impose colonial policies by heavily taxing the people to help maintain control - They required unpaid labor to harvest some crops - They would enact brutal punishments if a village could not enact a quota for goods of the town - With in one of the groups emerged a spiritual leader that he saw the difference in weapons - He believed that if he preform a ritual over water it would act as a protector of the people against European bullets 5 Friday, February 12, 2016 WWI - Alliances: They aligned themselves because they had common enemies not common goals - England,France, Russia - Germany, Austria,Italy - Germany made the first move due it location and it fearing a two front war due to the size of the russian army - German: Schliefen Plan- German troops move through Belgium swiftly (6 weeks), Russia needs 6 weeks to mobilize, and the idea that Great Britain will stay out of the war - War would change in front of everyone eyes, it would be something the world had never seen - France: Believes in Offensive strategy and Quick Victory - Belgium Tatics: Scorched Earth Tatics, Destroy Supply Lines, Fortify Large Towns ,and Flood Fields - British BEF joined Belgium in August 1914 to help - It slowed Germany down after a month of fighting - The French had brightly colored uniforms which made them easy targets in an age of smoke powder and machine guns - The French did not think the Germans were heading straight to Paris, when they found out they had to scramble - Taxis of the Battle of the Marne (1914): 600 taxi drivers picked up troops and drove them back to Paris to defend. - The results were Germany was pushed back and Western Front was established - Trench Warfare begins - New Technologies: Poison Gas, Machine Guns, Air Planes, Tanks - Glory of Combat: “War of Attrition”, National, Familial, and Personal Honor - Constant Bombardment in hopes of moving your enemy back after hitting them 6 Friday, February 12, 2016 - As a result progress would be measures in yards - Medicine did not catch up with modern technology as a result there is no anti-biotic - Chemical would have an effect on troops, mustard gas and chlorine - Effects: severe burns, blindness, - Trench Boots: many soldiers were given the wrong boots, they were given boots that were good for dry conditions, and as a result they had trench foot - Psychological Effects: Shell Shock, PTSD - Christmas Truce 1914: German and British thought the war would be over by christmas, but has the stale mat continued they made a truce and celebrated Christmas - War of illusions: thought it would be a quick victory - there was many deaths but little gains has the British lost 60,000 and Germans 400,00 over 25 square miles at the Battle of Somme 1916 - Total War: both military and civilian toll, destroyed civilian infrastructure - war bonds pulled money out of circulation and help stimulate the economy - there was a sense of shaming people to buy war bonds, one man was tarred and feathered for not buying war bonds - Ideal that you must ration your items to help the country Woodrow Wilson the US had a long tradition of Isolationism He was elected twice on the backing of isolationism He understood that the United States was a country of Immigrants and that support for the war was spilt He decided to not cut off trade to those in the war but he traded more with France and Britain. He provided financial loans to both sides but more heavily supports France and Britain Entente Powers Owed US: 2 Billion France and Britain: 3 billion 7 Friday, February 12, 2016 Factors that Made the US go to war: Sinking the Lusitania by U-Boats 128 US Passengers, Zimmerman Note: telegraph that said Germany would help Mexico get land back from US if Mexico was to declare war on Germany. April 1917 US Joins Germany after the sinking said it would resume unrestricted Submarine warfare They believe they could achieve victory in 5 months and that the US could no mobilize in those 5 months Wilson described WWI; “ As the War to End All Wars” The war shattered expectations in the sense it was different between the massive loss of life and the new technology it changed warfare forever it gave warfare some of it new technologies. Total War: A country uses not some but all its resources to the war effort Blurs line been soldiers and citizens national sacrifice Western Front has a stalemate, the events would help end the stalemate Ending Stalemate: U.S. joins the war, Harlem Hellfighters: There were initial concerns about arming African Americans, 42,000 see action, They were assigned to segregated units, 369th (Hell Fighters) Eastern Front vs Western Front Eastern Front: 1,000 Miles no trench system, Russia was not able to handle the line it self Trouble for Russia: Huge Army poor Infrastructure, Mutinies (1916-17), Chaos, Revolution was unavoidable Fourteen Points: Wilson response: Abolish Secret Treaties, Disarmament to minimum level, Balkan states de-occupied, League of Nations (Global Watch Dog). Russia Pulls out of WWI: Territory Lost to Germany ( Baltic States, Finland, Poland) Russia was in the middle of a civil war The Last Window of Opportunity German tried to outlast the US and make a final push, but it did not work with the addition of US troops the war was tipped towards defeat for Germany 8 Friday, February 12, 2016 Germany was having to ration its food. Peace Table (The Big Four): Britain, Italy, France, US the three not there are Russia, Germany, Austria The four will try to sway the peace to what their pre war objectives are League of Nations Created: US will never join the league of Nations German was only allowed to have a voluntary army of 100,000, was to repay the damages Loss of German Territory The Russian Revolution Two Phases, two revolutions March 1917: Democratic Revolution November 1917: Communist Revolution Russia remained communist until 1991 Why Russia? Ruled be an absolute monarch Defined by hereditary privileges and duties Overwhelmingly agriculture economy Large Peasant population Little industrialization Provides lasting political change unlike the French Revolution Revolution was started with the Ideas of Marxism Vladimir Lenin: Pre-1917 discontentment revolution requires violence peasants replace Proletariat Importance of part leadership and loyalty 9 Friday, February 12, 2016 1905 revolution after loss to Japan Lenin had attracted a few elites that were willing to over throw the Czar Lenin and his followers had to flee to Switzerland Lenin returns back to Russia with the help of Germany in April 1917 10


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