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Biology 111 week notes 3/22/16

by: Shayla Pedigo

Biology 111 week notes 3/22/16 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Shayla Pedigo

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About this Document

These notes are good for if you missed class or need a recap.
Athena Anderson
Class Notes
Biology, Biology 11100, Bio
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 03/10/16
Biology 111 notes 3/22/16 Types of Skeletal Systems Hydrostatic skeletons  fluid held under pressure in closed body compartment  movement achieved by using muscles to change shape of fluid-filled compartments  well-suited for aquatic environments  anemones, flatworms, segmented worms Exoskeletons  hard encasement deposited on animal’s surface  muscles attached to lining of skeleton  must be shed to allow for growth  mollusks (clams, snails) secrete theirs of calcium carbonate  arthropods (spiders, crabs, insects) secrete theirs of chitin Endoskeletons  hardened, internal, buried inside soft tissue  in sponges, made of silica  in echinoderms (sea stars, urchins), made of magnesium carbonate & calcium carbonate crystals  in chordates, made of cartilage or bone Allometric Scaling How characteristics of animals disproportionally change with size • morphological ex: scaling of leg size between antelope and elephants • physiological ex: scaling of metabolism between mice and elephants • ecological ex: relationship b/w wing size and flight performance in bats Allometric Morphological Scaling >Unequal change in body proportions with change in body size >Mammals’ skeletons become more robust relative to an animal’s body size as body size increases >>Example: elephant’s leg bones thicker relative to its body mass than the leg bones of a camel Locomotion >Active travel from place to place; important for obtaining food, mates, shelter; escape from danger >Energy must be spent to overcome friction & gravity >Amount of energy required to these forces often reduced by animals’ body plans Flying- active flight (not gliding or soaring) evolved independently 4 times: pterosaurs, bats, birds, insects Must overcome gravity completely >>In birds, • wing shape provides lift • hollow bones, no teeth, no bladder reduce weight • body shape reduces resistance • Walking (ambulation)- animal must support itself and move against gravity, maintain balance, but air offers little resistance • Energy used for propulsion and balance • Powerful muscles & skeletal support more important than streamlined shape Jumping (saltation)- overcoming gravity & maintaining balance important • Energy stored in tendons with each landing, then used to partially power next jump • Use less energy the faster they jump • Tail required for balance if directional Swimming- friction & viscosity more problematic than gravity • Fusiform shape reduces drag for fast swimmers, as it does for fliers • Some swim by moving body up & down, others side-to-side Behavioral Ecology How animals behave in relation to other animals & environment Tinbergen- understanding behavior requires answering these questions: 1. What stimulus illicits the behavior, what physiological mechanism regulates response? 2. How does animal’s experience during growth & development influence the response? 3. How does behavior aid survival & reproduction? 4. What is behavior’s evolutionary history? Fixed Action Patterns (FAPs)- sequence of unlearned (instinctive) acts directly linked to a simple stimulus • unchangeable • carried to completion once begun • trigger is external cue, “sign stimulus” Migration- regular long-distance relocation Environmental cues very important triggers How do they find their way? • position of sun, moon, and/or stars • planet’s magnetic field • Behavioral rhythms- influence animals’ daily activities; usually regulated by day length & light intensity • Circadian rhythm- daily cycle of rest & activity; wake up, go to sleep, estivate, etc. • Circannual rhythms- on annual cycle; hibernate, migrate, etc.


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