Adult Psychopathology Notes: Week of 3/8
Adult Psychopathology Notes: Week of 3/8 PSYCH 3250
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3250 at Cornell University taught by DR. HARRY SEGAL` in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 293 views. For similar materials see ADULT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
3/8/16 1. Hamlet 2. Brain a. Maintaining Homeostasis b. Cerebellum c. Limbic d. Cortex Hamlet 1. Act 1 Scene 45 a. Hamlet talks to his dad, and figures out that his uncle murdered him b. When Hamlet gets manic, he loses track of art and lifehe acknowledges that there is a person under the stage representing the ghost and saying “Swear” c. “How strange or odd soe'er I bear myself, As I perchance hereafter shall think meet To put an antic disposition on, That you, at such times seeing me, never shall,” a. ^ He tells his friends to not tell anyone when he starts acting crazy. Just let him do his work, and be his allies a. He’s starting to get hypermanic i. That’s his defense ii. Maybe he’s pretending to be hypermanic as a defense to him becoming crazy b. Realizes that his father says that he needs to kill his uncle, and that in doing so, he could probably end up getting killed Species Specific Behavior Here are the tasks of the brain for all animals: 1. Eating & Drinking 2. Fighting 3. Courting 4. Mating 5. Caring for Offspring 6. ...perceiving the environment, responding to the environment The Brain Stem 1. Medulla: basic essential function 2. Pons: switch for sleep & wakefulness 3. Midbrain: body movement 4. Cerebellum: precise and nuances in movement (Note, it says “strong” it should say “stroke) 5. Basal Ganglia: higher level of motor control (specific learning action) Thalamus & Hypothalamus 1. Thalamus: 2 parts, process more deeply 2. Hypothalamus: Limbic System Brings info from cerebellum, reouting it to centers of the brain generating conscious thought 1. Emotional system 2. Fight or flight reactions 3. treatment resistant depression 4. Hippocampus: episodic memory (storage and retrieval) 5. Amygdala: instinctive aggression Exterior Cerebral Cortex This is what separates us from most other animals (esp the prefrontal association cortex) 1. Occipital Lobe: Visuals 2. Temporal Lobe: primary auditory cortex & its association area 3. Parietal Lobe: including primary somatosensory cortex & association area 4. Frontal Lobe: judgements, rewires during adolescence, etc Contemporary Ways to Image the Brain 1. CT: images from narrow xrays passed through the brain 2. MRI: magnetic field around the brain, agitated by radio waves, 3. fMRI: improved MRI, monitors O2 levels 4. EEG: sensors placed on patient’s forehead, measures seizure activity 5. PET: radioactive particles Dualism: Imagining the Mind and Body as Separate Entities 1. Where are you in your body? a. behind your eyes? b. your whole body? 2. can you imagine yourself dad? 3. What do we tell children when someone they know has died? 4. Is there a spiritual realm “beyond” this one? 5. Are there ghosts, angels, demons? 6. Fundamentalist Believers v. “Mainstream” believers This Contemporary Belief/Fantasy about the After Life Movie: Ghost This idea that people who die and have unfinished business are here as ghosts [see slide] Ways to Misuse Brain Imaging Firstuse the imaging data to reverse the mind/body dualism by using it to “prove” the “brain theory” Example: When writer write when scanned by an fMRI, certain parts of their brains light up (So...what’s the point?) Proving the Brain Theory People have funky ways of interpreting and misusing brain images Truth: It’s ALWAYS biological, EVERYTHING is an electrochemical event Second people use these data to reduce the complexity of our brains to something simply physical (eg phrenology) Third disregard any study that ignores the fact that the brain constructs itself from experience Professional musicians use fewer parts of their brain when playing music than when you’re an amateur 16 year old drive like they’re missing part of their brain. why? Because they are Onto the Brain 1. What we can tell from the observed behavior: AR Luria and f unctioning systems a. eg the difference between your first time driving and when you’re finally comfortable driving b. Basically the theory: when you’re learning something, you’re using different parts of the brain than when you’ve mastered it i. Called this learning system (that codes a macro system) “functioning systems” 3/10 (From last class lecture) As humans, we dont like to think about how our brain generates our mind When you trip acid you’re messing with the electrochemical mechanisms that generate consciousness if it got permanently messed up, you probably wouldnt even know our experience is dependent on an organ that can get ill/hurt (and thus kinda limits what we can do) Ways to Misuse Brain Imaging Everything you do will pop up as some sort of neural activity Second people use these data to reduce the complexity of our brains to something simply physical (eg phrenology) Third disregard any study that ignores the fact that the brain constructs itself from experience Professional musicians use fewer parts of their brain when playing music than when you’re an amateur 16 year old drive like they’re missing part of their brain. why? Because they are From Mind to Brain Different types of psych n their descrpitions Note: we still dont know exactly how thoughts are generated Onto the Brain 1. What we can tell from the observed behavior: AR Luria and f unctioning systems a. eg the difference between your first time driving and when you’re finally comfortable driving b. Basically the theory: when you’re learning something, you’re using different parts of the brain than when you’ve mastered it i. Called this learning system (that codes a macro system) “functioning systems” 2. We a re the environment (our cerceptions) 3. What we share with lower mammals Moving on to today’s material: Hamlet (Ophelia’s dilemma) Ophelia comes in shocked about what she just experienced with the crazed Hamlet Polonius makes a diagnosis about Hamlet (says that Hamlet is definitely “mad” and as such his judgement has been compromised) How is the brain organized 1. hindbrain: signals sent here are experiences as thought, anxiety, and mood Neurons (how they work) [all information can be found on the slide] How Medicine for Mental Illnesses Work 1. Psychopharmacology (manipulated levels of neurotransmitters in the brain) 2. Psychiatric medication ( 3. [see slide] Two Kinds of receptors 1. Ionotropic 2. Metabotropic Neurotransmission 1. Response to firing of an adjacent nruwon 2. responses to other chemicals you bring into your body 3. food related responses 4. How medicine began [graph about neurochemical categorizations] Amino Acid Transitters you can’t target where things like SSRIs go, they just go directly into your bloodstream Women who have SSRIs are more likely to develop osteoporosis because serotonin is also involved in the development of bones/bone marrow 1. Glutamate 2. Glial cell Glu 3. Glu is “excitatory” neurotransmitter (amphetamines UP glutamate, which is why you shouldn’t take them before you go to sleep) 4. GABA is the main “inhibitory” transmitter ***KNOW GLUTAMATE AND GABA FOR THE EXAM** Acetylchoinethe classic neurotransmitter 1. The Ach neuron brings choline into the cell. ChAT transfers a molecule of acetate and voila you have Ach 2. [see slide] Graph: neurons/pathways “stem” from the brain stem Catecholamines: The crucial set of neurotransmitters [See slide] Graph: Process by which tyrosine is turned into the 3 neurotransmitters (*for exam, just know that tyrosine turns into those 3*) Dopaminergic Neurons… 1. Vesicles 2. Autoreceptors 3. Transporters 4. All three work together to help neuron to maintain its function Balance of NE and DA Can be responsible for dramatic changes in functioning (pis of bnnies pre and post) Dopaminergic pathways in the brain Yes these dopamine neurons are affected by LSD, marijuana, etc (mess with neocortex) To treat scizophrenia, you need to lower DA in brain. BUT doing that could affect the nigrostriatal pathwaysleaving some patients with parkinson’s that they can never get rid of Noradrenergic Pathways Serotonin Rapid tryotophan depletion leads to symptom relapse in recovered depressed patients Seratonergic System Genetic deletion leads to depression *** Increase Seratonin in the brain: a) by adding seratonin agonists that power up the receptors b) by blocking reuptake by transporters c) by forcing release of 5HT from nerve terminals and you sometimes decrease anxiety and depression ***** Story of a patient that had a lot of depression/anxiety and then after he was prescribed Prozac and he had a whole turn around (he was thinking thoughts he never though before, and he was feeling hopeful, etc) During the family therapy session he told them how when he was 11 he wanted to kill himself. And parents responded well. In his case, it was shown that raising serotonin levels is all it took to make him significantly better Note: There is a difference between having an event cause you depression (in which case you probably wouldn’t respond well to medication...because THATS NOT THE PROBLEM) and being predisposed to depression (aka having a family history of it. in which case MEDICATION COULD help.) only 30% of people that are prescribed medications will actually comply (b/c we’re not happy with the idea of taking medicines or showing weakness)
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