March 8th and 10th Notes
March 8th and 10th Notes 76884
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Onefater on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 76884 at George Washington University taught by Dr. George Howe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see PSYC4201W in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Correlation Statistics a language for describing groups, collections, samples • Quantitative description on one or more dimensions 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inches Person Height Words in that language • Frequency distribution: the spread of how many people get a particular score, and can be on a contiam – The number (or percent) of people having the same score, distributed across all scores • Location of that distribution on a dimension: – Range (056) – Midpoint of range (28.5) – Median (12) – Mean: μ = Σ(x)/n: (15.4) • How variable the scores are: – Pick a point of reference (the mean μ ) – Calculate how far away every other score is – Calculate the average distance from the mean • Variance: take the square root of the standard deviationsays something about the overall pool of people, and whether or not people are closer to the left or right of the mean Note: divide by n, not n1, for population variance • Mean: 15.4 • Variance: 167.44 • Standard deviation: 12.94 +1 SD +2 SD 1 SD 2 SD What about describing on two dimensions? • Depressive symptoms •Attachment closeness: people vary in their experience and in their capacity for closeness Mean 15.4 21.7 Variance 167.44 24.05 SD 12.94 4.09 Do they vary in the same way? •Common variance : does a person’s deviation from the mean on attachment say anything about her/his deviation from the mean on depression? *Question: How do they connect with each other. If you fall into an experience in your world where you are not close to people, are you more likely to be depressed, or if there is an opposite social situation, are you less likely to be depressed. (i.e. If you are higher on closeness, are you lower on depression?) • I reversed the closeness score to reflect distance – tip: reversed score = (max + min – oldscore) → For cause, to you have both the factual and the counterfactual to determine cause? Answer : Maybe **Interested in whether the variation in one(distance/depression) is related to variation in the other(distance/depression) More words in statistics language • Common variance: covariance • Variance of X1: Covariance of X1 and X2 **Notice that the variance can be thought of as a variable’s covariance with itself Variancecovariance matrix • Summarizes both variance and covariance • Note that covariance is influenced by scale of variables Depressive Symptoms Attachment Closeness Depressive Symptoms DS Variance Covariance Attachment Closeness Covariance AC Variance Depressive Symptoms Attachment Closeness Depressive Symptoms 167.44 25.31 Attachment Closeness 25.31 24.05 Correlation matrix • Standardize for comparison across sets of variables: divide by product of SDs of both variables: – Also known as the correlation coefficient Depressive Symptoms Attachment Closeness Depressive Symptoms 1 0.40 Attachment Closeness 0.40 1 Plot of best fit • Formula for covariance also defines a “least squares” estimator: minimizes the vertical distance from each point to best fit line → Rise/Run, for every 1pt. we go up on the standardized scale, we go up .4 on depression, so it defines the line Calculating and graphing correlations in Excel • Detailed account of this with screenshots is in Blackboard Lecture Notes • You will be doing this with your Study 2 data in the next lab meeting Steps: 1. Correlation between threat and negative emotion 2. Contemporaneous(def.) Correlation of Threat and Negative emotions a. =Correl(Threat, Negative emotion)*Enter* 3. Change in Negative Emotion(Day1 to Day 2) a. =Day 2Day 1 *Do this for all the slides* 4. Correaltion of threat and chaneg in negative emotion: *Didn’t measure anything in day 8!* a. =Correl(Threat for first 6 days, neg. Emotion for 6 days)*Enter* b. *NOTE: Threat on one day is related to reduction in negative emotion in the next day! **Questions to Ask After Conducting Data : If stress has an impact on emotion in the same day and emif emotion reregulation(tends to come back down to some kind of intermediate level the next day), then tomorrow they may cave back down to that level,but if you have a really good day, negative emotions are pushed down then they might rise up the following day. 5. Insert a Scatter Chart(plotting scores of each indiv. On 2 dimensions against each other 6. Put threat on the bottom X Axis(7 days), & Axis is Neg. Emotion(7 Days) 7. Add Chart element, Trend line, linear trend line(line of best fit) *IMPORTANT: Do all of this for both positive and negative effect Interpreting correlations • Sign of correlation – Depends on how you scale your variable (what is a low score, what is a high score) – Example: • closeness – low scores = little closeness – high scores = lot of closeness • Reverse scored – low scores = lot of closeness (little distance) – high scores = little closeness (lot of distance) *Revised naming for closeness to distance in order to reflect the direction of increasing score, and if you had not reversed the score, the number would not change, but the sign would change . • Correlating with another variable: same correlation, opposite sign Interpreting correlations • Magnitude of correlation (terms suggested by Cohen): Correlation Strength of association 0= None Association .10 Small .30 Medium .50 Large Standard error of correlation • Correlation based on sample will only be an approximation of the population correlation • Standard error tells us how much uncertainty there is in the sample estimate • Standard error of correlation r: Example • Correlation: r = .606 • N = 7 • Standard error of correlation: SEr = .356 • 95% confidence interval (SEr*1.96): CI = .090, 1.303 • So, we have no confidence that the correlation differs from zero (using .05 as our level of significance) • With N of 7, the correlation becomes significant only if it is greater than .65. • So, larger samples allow us to detect smaller correlations with more confidence *Small number of days that contribute to the statistics, and the more “n” the smaller the standard error gets, so there is VERY little confidence in the scores How do we cope? → Extension of behavioral psychology and B.F. Skinner etc. What do you do next? → Are faced with something (i.e. notification of termination) what is the action you take? Early ideas about coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) • Problemfocused coping – Act to manage or resolve the stressor, try to fix the stressor • Emotionfocused coping – Act to manage the associated emotions, try to address the emotional response to the stressor Problemfocused coping • Approach activities – I just concentrated on what I had to do next – I made a plan of action and followed it – I changed something so things would turn out all right. – I knew what had to be done, so I doubled my efforts to make things work. • Avoidance activities – I slept more than usual – I generally avoided being with people – I wished that the situation would go away or somehow be over with Emotionfocused coping • Selfsoothing – I listen to music – I get a massage – I go for a run or other exercise – I express my emotions creatively (i.e. painting) • Seeking emotional support from others – I go out with a friend – I share my troubles with another – I talk to someone who can empathize – I let others know how bad I feel about things Problems with this framework: mixed findings • Problemfocused approach coping was usually associated with better emotional response (such as less depression or anxiety) – In couples facing prostate cancer – In dementia caregivers (Piercey et al., 2013) • But occasionally it was not – In people recently diagnosed with low grade brain tumors (Keeling et al, 2013) •Avoidant coping was most often associated with more negative emotional response (such as more depression or anxiety) – In couples facing prostate cancer – In dementia caregivers (Piercey et al., 2013) • But distancing or distraction, originally thought to be forms of avoidance, were sometimes associated with better outcomes – Reduced children’s perceptions of pain (Lu et al, 2007)this situation was actually helpful • Although not in all situations – In children of highconflict parents, distancing associated with more anxiety and depression, (Fear et al., 2009) • Emotionfocused coping was often associated with greater distress – Associated with suicidal ideation in: • Adult medical inpatients (Marusic & Goodwin, 2006) • Undergraduate women (Edwards & Holden, 2001) • Italian adolescents surviving a major earthquake (Stratta et al, 2014) – Associated with greater anxiety or depression in • Couples facing prostate cancer in men (Lafaye et al, 2014) • First nation adults in Canada (mediated effects of childhood trauma) (McQuaid et al., 2014) – Although sometimes it was associated with lower distress: expressive writing (Pennebaker et.al) No single approach!! • People often reported using several kinds of coping during the same stressful period • Bolger & Zuckerman (1995): found difference in personality and look in ways of coping, there are high levels of coping activities in that study *NOTE: Sometimes doing contradicting things in the same day (i.e. avoidance and seek out social support) – 14 day daily diary study of 94 students Situational specificity • Both type of coping and association with emotions appear to vary across situations – Ayers et al (1996) assessed both dispositional and situational coping strategies in children There does seem to be consistency and all are correlated strongly, and there is a substantial variability and how the child said they coped stylistically, and how they coped in stressful situations *NOTE: The most common/helpful coping mechanisms was physical activity Evolving into more functional framework • Coping involves a range of actions (including thinking), both automatic and planned, that carry out one or more functions, including: – Changing or resolving stressful conditions – Altering the meaning of those conditions(exp.)the meaning of the situation holds a lot of the stress, so this can be an action or a thought process *NOTE: Action and appraisal tie together much more, stable underlying styles that are limited in that they vary across situations – Reducing discomfort • Coping may reflect – More general style that are consistent over time and place – More adaptive responses fitted to thspecific situation/flexibility Focus on specific situations • Bolger & Zuckerman (1995) – Daily diary to recordnterpersonal conflict events • Arguments, tensions, or being criticized ratings: • With a "family member," a "close friend/boyfriend/girlfriend," and "any other individual (other friends, roommates, acquaintances, or strangers).“ – And emotions ratings in emotion: • Anger: "annoyed,“ "peeved," and "resentful.“ • Anxiety: "on edge,“ "uneasy," and "nervous." • Depression: "sad,“ "hopeless," and "discouraged." Longitudinal design • Bolger & Zuckerman (1995) – Collected data daily for 14 days→ Considered longitudinal study – Allowed them to study both contemporaneous associations and associations with change *NOTE: people were asked to write these out using pen and paper Studying effects of personality style • Bolger & Zuckerman (1995) – Included a measure of Neuroticism, defined as • A broad dimension of personality • whereby people vary in autonomic nervous system lability(def.) it changes fast, it can “bounce around” • and in the tendency to experience negative emotionsassociated with things like anxiety and depression – Allowed them to assess whether effects were different for those higher or lower in neuroticism Findings: stress exposure • Conflict on any day was associated with increases in anger, depression, not anxiety, the next day • But only for the high N group • For low N group, some evidence for recovery next day (negative association) **Changes in anger go up the next day after a conflict, but do not change for the other group. For depression they found it going up for the high neuroticism group(p=.054→ “fuzzy”) and low neuroticism is negative Findings: coping • High “N”(neuroticism) group engaged in more – Planful problem solving – Selfcontrolling – Seeking social support – Escapeavoidance – Confrontation (marginally) • Effects of coping on change in emotion depended on type of coping, type of emotion, and level of neuroticism → Selfcontrolling coping was involved in increasing anger the next day → High N also increase depression N the next day, and those in Low N, depression went down the next day Limitations? → Was there enough writing done that they felt better at the need of the week simply because you are used to writing more(Pennebakeryou feel better after writing), also how much did they share initially versus at the end of the experiment → Possible people might have missed a couple of days, if they missed randomly or systematically? What if you forgot to fill out the questionnaire the night you got into the big fight because you were upset! → Timing might not be accurate, and someone may fill all of the diary entries out at the end because they forgot to earlier → Also the medication that they are on! → Differences in Gender But, are attempts to actively cope with the situation always positive? • Lin & Leung (2010): Reviewed research suggesting active job search associated with increased negative affect • Problem: contemporaneous correlation studies, could be that people how feel worse are actually doing more job searching as a way of coping! • Possibilities: – Job search generates more pressure, so – Depression increases motivation for job search, so – Both are shaped by a third factor, such as unemployment demands Findings from longitudinal study (Lin & Leung, 2010) • Evidence for the third pattern: • But notice that even here, the effects are contemporaneous → the more stress you are under, the harder you will cope Other situations where attempts at active control may lead to negative emotions • John Weisz (1994): studied children being treated for leukemia, who were exposed to: – Staying in the hospital overnight – Lumbar punctures – Bone marrow aspiration – Procedures leading to vomiting and hair loss Control versus adapting or giving up • Weisz asked children to describe goals, and what they did to cope with each of these. 3 general responses: – To change environment – To adjust self (beliefs, hopes, goals, interpretations) to circumstance – To relinquish control (“there’s nothing I can do’) Distress for different types of coping with medical procedures → For those kids that said they do something about it, coming up on the the situation, they were more distressed than children who gave up or said they would adjust, and was the opposite effect after the treatment Acceptance • Accepting what comes, valuing the moment → this may be very very useful • In this study, adjusting self (beliefs, hopes, goals, interpretations) to circumstance Do Adjust Relinquish During Preparation Phase Do Adjust Relinquish After Procedure Complete 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Observed Distress (Tension, Crying, Screaming, Flailing) Serenity Prayer “God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference.” → Suggests coping may need to partake in both those parts in acceptance and active probe focused coping, but know when it is best to apply which one! Prevention: training in coping skills • Vinokur et al (2000) → Two years after a job loss: Longterm impact of the JOBS program on reemployment and mental health. • Randomized field trial of the JOBS program – 1801 recently unemployed participants – Randomly assigned to workshops or readings – Workshop/Groups(712 people) in Detroit areas, and it occurred when the auto industry was downsizing so they had everyone from Janitors to CEO’s • Group intervention • Designed to facilitate active coping with recent job loss JOBS Workshop Sessions •Session On: Discovering your own skills, identifying transferable skills, thinking like an employer •Session Tw: Presenting your own strengths, overcoming barriers or weaknesses in your record • Session Three: Finding job openings through networking and information interviews •Session Fou Interviewing and controlling the interview •Session Fi: Practicing interviews, handling job offers, and graduation → Had a good number of people who said that it was not fair to use jobs that are found through networking → What are you going to do when you get rejected, because you will get rejected Effects of JOBS II on Depressive Symptoms Divided groups up: 1. high risk higher levels of depressive symptoms) and other things related to social shynessdid not allow people in who were already diagnoseddid best in the experimental group after the treatment 2. People who were not prone to anxiety, shyness or depression prior to the treatment Treatments that target active engagement •Behavioral activation th for depression – Addis & Martel (2004) – Overall StrateACTION •Assess behavior/mood, and see how you respond! •Coose alternate responses, •Ty out those alternate responses, •Integrate these alternatives, and keep doing them until they feel second nature! •bserve results Now) evaluate *NOTE: Often, certain responses lead to avoidance – Tracking behavior and mood, to iTRAPs y •riggers(identify) •esponses(observe) •AvoidancPatterns *Asked people to keep logs and what may have triggered or came before the action! – Replace withTRAC •Trigger •Response •AternatCoping response Efficacy in treatment of depression • Mazzucchelli et al (2009) – Metaanalysis of 34 studies with 2005 participants – Effective at posttest, 13 month followup (few studies follow longer) – No differences when compared to other treatments, esp. CBT(3040 different types of behavioral activation, yes this does help) → There are very few studies that follow up after the three months → After CBT, longer term effects for CBT for depression that reduce the likelohood of the depression to arise again → impossible to do intervention without using messages to change how they view the world and how it affects their lives: Impact on Appraisals ACT: Focus on commitment • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy – Values clarificat:(def.) what do you value? What do you want out of the world? What are goals for you? Are you behaving like the person you would like to be? Are you more removed for the person you would like to be? –Committed action: (def.)Acting in therefore in opposition to avoidance → Suggest that often when we are entrapped in emotional reactions that can be disruptive ACT In A Nutshell : Psychological Flexibility: Be present, Open up Do what matters The Present Moment: Be Here Now Defusion: Watch Your Thinking Acceptance: Open Up Values: Know What Matters Committed: Action Do What It Takes Selfascontext: Pure Awareness Effectiveness of ACT as a therapy? • Recent review (Smout et al, 2012): • Evidence from randomized clinical trials comparing ACT to treatmentasusual • Strong enough to meet clinical guidelines for: – Pediatric chronic pain – Obsessivecompulsive disorder – Anxiety disorders including social anxiety, generalized anxiety • No research as yet testing which components are the active ingredients
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