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Week 4 and 5 Notes

by: Victoria Miller

Week 4 and 5 Notes HY 362

Victoria Miller

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About this Document

Covers NEP and about half of Stalin's rise to power
Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Margaret Peacock
Class Notes
Stalin, NEP, Russian Revolution, Soviet Union, Communism, Western Civ
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
Week 4 & 5 Notes  The Whites, losers o Requisitioning grain by force but not systematic like the Reds  The Reds, a winning message o If the Whites win, you, the peasants, will lose land  People knew how things were with the White and it sucked, but they didn’t know with the Reds  Whites took land from the peasants and turned them against them o Bolsheviks had the promise of modernity  Movie truck  Modern constructivist art on posters  1 in history to have a department devoted to propaganda  The Impact of the Civil War o Bolshevik identity of the party calcifies o Turn toward centralization and authoritarianism (everything run by the State) o The return to traditional discipline  Commissar  political officer  Makes sure everyone follows the rules and stay good Bolsheviks o Militarism  Bolsheviks got used to handling things in a wartime manner  Using force and violence continues after the Civil War o The Hopeful Side  The utopian side of Bolshevism  The transformation of lives  Complete equal rights for women o Divorce is easy, abortion is legal o New organization to defend rights of women  In family engineering o Free love communes o Attempts to eradicate the nuclear family  Demystification campaigns o Religion is the opiate of the masses o People start believing that religion is BS  Literacy campaigns o 1917, 7% of population is literate o 1937, 90% of population is literate, higher rate an in the US  In education o Campaigns to make peasants more cultured: use utensils, wash their clothes, bathe more often, etc.  Artistic movements o Ivan Shadr  The Monument to the World’s Suffering (never built) o Tatlin’s Monument to the Third International, supposed to house the Commonturn, supposed to be bigger than the Eiffel Tower (also never got built) o Suffering continues…  Crisis in the Wake of War, 1921 o Russia is riddled with economic breakdown, terrible famine, halted industry, empty cities, peasant unrest, the rise of Green Armies, urban protests  Kronstadt  “Down with the Commisarocracy!”  Wanted a decentralized system o War Communism isn’t working o Lenin proposed 2 pronged approach  Repression  Send Red Army to squash all uprisings and outlaw all factions within the Party  Reform  New Economic Policy (NEP) o No more grain requisitioning, let the peasants grow the grain, and sell it on the open market o Allow for free market and small private industry o Economic Recovery (sort of)  Foreign investment is allowed  Problems with NEP  Doesn’t actually allow for real growth  Lack of capital to encourage growth  Things only get better for a very small % of population o Nepmen and Nepwomen  Emergence of prostitution  Homeless gangs of children roaming the streets  Crime is rampant o Bukharin and the Right  Bukharin (and Stalin at this point) thought Russian backwardness o The Left vs. The Right (before 1929)  Left  Trotsky  Right  Stalin, Bukharin o The Left vs. the Right (after 1929)  Left  Stalin o No Left, No Right, Just Stalin (after 1929)  NEP Culture o Western films and nightclubs and crime o Time of great experimentation  Young people organized communes  City planning  Film  Sergei Einstein  Stalin o Stalin as a Young Tike  The rebel Dzhugashvili… against authority, the seminary  Rude and disrespectful o The lessons Stalin didn’t learn as a child  How to take a joke  How to be tolerant  How to perceive variance and moral relativity  How to see his heroes as flawed o Koba and the Bolsheviks  Stalin chooses the radical side, right from the beginning o Stalin and Lenin  Stalin gravitated toward Lenin as a leader and a personality  His “mountain eagle”  He supported NEP, but in ways that bring his real views into question  Leninism  “Russian Revolutionary Sweep” o Ability of the Russians to be innovative and daring  “American Practicality” o Ability to recognize what’s feasibly possible and then actually do it o Stalin vs. Trotsky  Criticizes Trotsky’s “permanent revolution” o Understanding Stalin’s Rise to Power  Changing structure of party leadership  1919, Central Committee is split into 3 parts o Political Bureau o Organizational Bureau  In charge of getting new members of the party and giving assignments to party members, and purging (not killing, just kicked out) o The Secretariat: handing the paperwork  (Stalin is in charge of the Org. Bureau and the Secretariat)  Why make Stalin a secretary?  Get him away from real power  Not a real thinker  He was really good at being a secretary  Way to fill various positions within the Party with his loyalists  Local party secretaries all across Russia o How he took over the Party Congress o Stalin cultivates a following  In Stalin’s hands, these powers proved to be tools for strengthening his own influence  This allowed him to control who sat in the Party Congress  The “circular flow of power”


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