Week 4 and 5 Notes
Week 4 and 5 Notes HY 362
Popular in Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Week 4 & 5 Notes The Whites, losers o Requisitioning grain by force but not systematic like the Reds The Reds, a winning message o If the Whites win, you, the peasants, will lose land People knew how things were with the White and it sucked, but they didn’t know with the Reds Whites took land from the peasants and turned them against them o Bolsheviks had the promise of modernity Movie truck Modern constructivist art on posters 1 in history to have a department devoted to propaganda The Impact of the Civil War o Bolshevik identity of the party calcifies o Turn toward centralization and authoritarianism (everything run by the State) o The return to traditional discipline Commissar political officer Makes sure everyone follows the rules and stay good Bolsheviks o Militarism Bolsheviks got used to handling things in a wartime manner Using force and violence continues after the Civil War o The Hopeful Side The utopian side of Bolshevism The transformation of lives Complete equal rights for women o Divorce is easy, abortion is legal o New organization to defend rights of women In family engineering o Free love communes o Attempts to eradicate the nuclear family Demystification campaigns o Religion is the opiate of the masses o People start believing that religion is BS Literacy campaigns o 1917, 7% of population is literate o 1937, 90% of population is literate, higher rate an in the US In education o Campaigns to make peasants more cultured: use utensils, wash their clothes, bathe more often, etc. Artistic movements o Ivan Shadr The Monument to the World’s Suffering (never built) o Tatlin’s Monument to the Third International, supposed to house the Commonturn, supposed to be bigger than the Eiffel Tower (also never got built) o Suffering continues… Crisis in the Wake of War, 1921 o Russia is riddled with economic breakdown, terrible famine, halted industry, empty cities, peasant unrest, the rise of Green Armies, urban protests Kronstadt “Down with the Commisarocracy!” Wanted a decentralized system o War Communism isn’t working o Lenin proposed 2 pronged approach Repression Send Red Army to squash all uprisings and outlaw all factions within the Party Reform New Economic Policy (NEP) o No more grain requisitioning, let the peasants grow the grain, and sell it on the open market o Allow for free market and small private industry o Economic Recovery (sort of) Foreign investment is allowed Problems with NEP Doesn’t actually allow for real growth Lack of capital to encourage growth Things only get better for a very small % of population o Nepmen and Nepwomen Emergence of prostitution Homeless gangs of children roaming the streets Crime is rampant o Bukharin and the Right Bukharin (and Stalin at this point) thought Russian backwardness o The Left vs. The Right (before 1929) Left Trotsky Right Stalin, Bukharin o The Left vs. the Right (after 1929) Left Stalin o No Left, No Right, Just Stalin (after 1929) NEP Culture o Western films and nightclubs and crime o Time of great experimentation Young people organized communes City planning Film Sergei Einstein Stalin o Stalin as a Young Tike The rebel Dzhugashvili… against authority, the seminary Rude and disrespectful o The lessons Stalin didn’t learn as a child How to take a joke How to be tolerant How to perceive variance and moral relativity How to see his heroes as flawed o Koba and the Bolsheviks Stalin chooses the radical side, right from the beginning o Stalin and Lenin Stalin gravitated toward Lenin as a leader and a personality His “mountain eagle” He supported NEP, but in ways that bring his real views into question Leninism “Russian Revolutionary Sweep” o Ability of the Russians to be innovative and daring “American Practicality” o Ability to recognize what’s feasibly possible and then actually do it o Stalin vs. Trotsky Criticizes Trotsky’s “permanent revolution” o Understanding Stalin’s Rise to Power Changing structure of party leadership 1919, Central Committee is split into 3 parts o Political Bureau o Organizational Bureau In charge of getting new members of the party and giving assignments to party members, and purging (not killing, just kicked out) o The Secretariat: handing the paperwork (Stalin is in charge of the Org. Bureau and the Secretariat) Why make Stalin a secretary? Get him away from real power Not a real thinker He was really good at being a secretary Way to fill various positions within the Party with his loyalists Local party secretaries all across Russia o How he took over the Party Congress o Stalin cultivates a following In Stalin’s hands, these powers proved to be tools for strengthening his own influence This allowed him to control who sat in the Party Congress The “circular flow of power”
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