PSCI 1040 Bureaucracy notes!
PSCI 1040 Bureaucracy notes! PSCI 1040
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Brooksbank on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 1040 at University of North Texas taught by Wendy Watson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 339 views. For similar materials see American History in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Notes: Bureaucracy Class 3/8/16 - 3/10/16 Cabinet Departments: - Agriculture, commerce, defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human services…etc… - Secretary is head of all - Attorney General for justice - Heads of departments appointed by president and confirmed by senate Independent ExecutiveAgencies Examples: - NASA - CIA - Veterans’Affairs started here… Other bureaucraticAgencies - Independent regulatory commissions: Headed by multiple people instead of just one person inc charge. The president appoints the head of these commissions in long staggered terms and often one president doesn't get to appoint all of them - Postal Rate Commission, Federal Reserve Board - Goal: remove this from party politics - Independent government Corporations: US postal service, Tennessee ValleyAuthority,Amtrak - More autonomy The Politics ofAgency Structure: - CreatingAgency = issues importance - Once a group has an agency representing them it is hard to take it away - Independence from executive, cabinet departments The Politics ofAgency Structure: The Unitary Executive: - Remember Hamilton: Unified, or unitary, executive necessary for “energy” - Why strong executive: The buck stops with the president, there is one person responsible for the blame and the credit if you have a strong president - Everyone should be acting by the president - Structure of agencies affects unitary executive The Politics ofAgency Structure: The Regulated Interests: - Agency devoted to your issue means it is important, gives you visibility - Agency Capture -Aform of political corruption that occurs when a regulatory agency, created to act in public interest, instead advances the commercial or political concerns of special interest groups that dominate the industry - Iron Triangles: Bureaucratic agency, interest group and a congressional committee or subcommittee - Exchange information, they know each other - Creates a system of influence that may not be healthy with all these bonds. - Issue Networks - Simple - Revolving door Last time: - Federal bureaucracy is HUGE - Congress creates agencies in a certain way in order to achieve political objectives - Presidential control varies What bureaucratic agencies do: - Implement laws and policies - Techniques: Inspection and enforcement - Example: Determine whether someone is breaking the law and put penalty - Making the rules that are being enforced / provide basis for inspection Notes: Bureaucracy Class 3/8/16 - 3/10/16 What bureaucratic agencies do to implement policy: - Adjudication - they are acting like judges - Legislation - laws considered collectively - Litigation - Go in Front of the courts Forces affecting Bureaucratic agencies: - Congress: Make laws to be implemented - President: Review laws to see if they aren't what the president wants them to be - Clientele: People being regulated affects what agency does Bureaucracy: Problem #1: Slow and Inefficient - Going through this process takes a long time to see results and more money spent - Congressional and Presidential CONTROL - Policy Slippage: if the president tells his secretary of ed to do something, she turns around and conveys that to the next person and the next person its like the game of Telephone, by the time the info reaches destination things have been lost in translation - Fairness and equal treatment Problem #2: Ineffective - Impossible tasks - Results difficult to measure Problem #3: Slow to change prone to Expansion and Waste - “Parochialism” (Narrow perspective) - Self Interest Ways to fix the bureaucracy: - Termination of an agency and get rid of it - Deregulation: Take away the laws the agency is implementing - Devolution:Allows states to be the laboratories of democracy - Privatization: Take policy objectives out of government control put into private agencies, imposing profit motive on public activities. Notes Bureaucracy Continued… 3/7/16 Chapter 11: Learning objectives: 1. For the bureaucracy to carry out policy effectively, they must have coordination between federal agencies (critical thinking) 2. The federal bureaucracy implements the law, with each agency interpreting and applying the laws that relate to its jurisdiction (Social responsibility) 3. Diversity is very important for a democratic bureaucracy to be effective (communication) 4. Ethical decision making is a complex process, but it is essential for managing regulatory activities (personal responsibility) For Bureaucracy to carry out effective policy >>> coordination between federal agencies: - Criticism of this is that bureaucracies do not coordinate with one another - Because they want to claim their success and not share credit with other agencies - They want to increase their budget, poor decision making The federal bureaucracy implements the law, with each agency interpreting and applying the laws that relate to their jurisdiction: - US engaged in efforts to reduce nuclear weapons in the former soviet union - Why would it make sense for the EPAto handle the creation of fuel efficiency standards? The bureaucracy is organized by task, and fuel efficiency standards are associated with one of the EPA’s tasks; congress prefers to delegate the technical aspects of policymaking to the federal bureaucracy; and the EPA’s mission is to protect the environment, and raising fuel efficiency standards should reduce air pollution and protect the environment - Department of Commerce: Promote Job creation, economic growth, sustainable development and improved standards of living for allAmericans by working in partnership - The Federal bureaucracy is criticized for being undemocratic, mainly because none of its employees are elected directly by theAmerican people. Essential elements of Bureaucracy: Who implements the law: - Bureaucrats who implement public policy are trained experts qualified to handle complex tasks - Promotion = Based on Merit - Pendleton Civil Service ReformAct:Act of congress created civil service system - Career bureaucratsAND political appointees are to be hired and promoted based on merit Diversity is very important for a democratic bureaucracy to be effective - Two types: Career Bureaucrat and PoliticalAppointees Notes Bureaucracy 3/7/16 Chapter 10: Central Ideas 1. The federal Bureaucracy enables the president to implement laws passed by congress 2. The federal bureaucracy has grown considerably since the Founding, and especially since the great depression 3. The federal bureaucracy can be a powerful force, but its powers are limited 4. Americans continually seek ways to reform the bureaucracy The federal Bureaucracy enables the president to implement laws passed by Congress - Implemented by the executive branch: the Federal bureaucracy - Bureaucrat:An employee in a bureaucracy - The Executive branch is responsible FOR:ADMINISTERING LAWS The executive branch includes… - Cabinet departments and federal agencies, bureaus and offices along with the president and vice president form this branch of government! Bureaucracy functions: 1. Allows an organization to operate efficiently by dividing labor among employees who are experts at preforming specific tasks. Division and specialization of labor in a bureaucracy is often managed by a hierarchy of authority compared to a pyramid, bottom = general skill, top = expert skill. 2. Allows processes to be standardized so that products and services can be provided with consistency, with transparency and with fairness at large scales. 3. Paperwork: Standardized set of procedures that allow the government to coordinate numerous actions and administer massive programs in a consistent and equitable way. 4. Rules and processes: Designed to implement, or enforce the laws passed by congress 5. Characteristic of Bureaucracy: Division of labor! 6. Aworker at the upper end of bureaucratic hierarchy would probably be a person of GREATER authority! How is the Executive branch Organized: - Composition: Cabinet departments, independent agencies, regulatory commissions and government cooperations - The largest units in the executive branch are the CABINET department (executive) 15 today! - IndependentAgency: organization set up by congress outside the cabinet department structure. They coordinate and carry out important government functions. (Responsible to congress) - Dodd-FrankAct 2010: Established consumer Financial Protection Bureau within the Federal Reserve System; this independent bureau is tasked with promoting fairness and transparency regarding common financial products such as mortgages and credit cards - The Federal Reserve System: Independent regulatory Commission Legislative Oversight of the Bureaucracy: - Executive departments correspond with… Congressional Committees Issue Networks and Iron Triangles: - Issue Network: Complex set or cooperate relationships between groups of citizens affected by a particular set of policies and the bureaucratic agency and congressional committee with jurisdiction over those policies - Iron Triangle: Aterm describing the coordination among congressional committees bureaucratic agencies and interest groups (Alliance between the three) - Difference between the two: Iron triangle is a tight relationship between employees in government agencies, interest groups and legislators (staff) SHAREAN INTEREST in specific policy issues and work to shape laws behind the scenes whereas Issue networks communicate about debate and interact regarding ISSUES OF INTEREST and thus influence public policy when legislature acts. Notes Bureaucracy 3/7/16 - 3 components of Iron triangle: Congressional committees, bureaucratic agencies and interest groups Example of a department that serves narrow rather than general interests: - The department of agriculture - Why? Because they serve the narrow interests of a particular CLIENTELE (Farmers) rather than the general interests of theAmerican public as a whole! Federal Bureaucracy has grown since the founding and the Great Depression: - Spoils system: Political system in which the winning party in an election compensates its supporters with government jobs and services - Effect of Spoils System = EXPANSION OF FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY - The size expanded of the Federal bureaucracy whenAndrew Jackson was Elected Progressive era: Precursor to the Modern Bureaucracy - Progressive Era: The period in the late 19th and early 20th centuries marked by a social movement calling for sweeping reforms through increased government regulation. Some of the Progressives’ priorities included prohibition of alcohol, extension of voting rights to women and limitations on government corruption. - PendletonAct: Required federal employees to be hired based on merit - Progressive Era was a reaction to the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONAND ITS EFFECTS Working for the people: The New deal begins: - The collapse of the global market economy that began on October 24, 1929, sparked a NEW ERA OF government REFORM in the US. - Securities Exchange act of 1934: Created an independent agency to monitor and regulate the Vulnerable stock market. - Social SecurityAct 1935: The moment when the federal bureaucracy became a crucial provider of social services - At the end of WW2: President Truman made efforts to streamline federal bureaucracy Search of a perfect Union: The great Society: - Great Society: Series of Federal Government programs promoted by Lyndon Johnson in the 1960s that aimed to end poverty and racial injustice. - Civil RightsAct of 1964: Government provided federal protection against discrimination in voting, employment, education and access to public facilities and accommodations - Why expand the budget and scope of the federal government? To improve the well-being of communities across the United States. Shrinking of the bureaucracy: The Reagan Revolution - The expansion of programs and activities during the Great society movement exposed some of the flaws and inefficiencies associated with the Vast Federal Bureaucracy - The Federal Bureaucracy has slowed since the New Deal and Great Society Eras, but still advances -ederal Bureaucracy can be a powerful force, but it’s powers are limited The primary source of bureaucratic authority is the power of description granted to bureaucrats by Congress. - When an administrator has to interpret the intentions of Congress in order to put the law into action, they are exercising bureaucratic power - THE POWER OF DISCRETION Limitations on Bureaucratic Power - Accountability: The department agencies in the executive branch are accountable to both congress (Makes laws being implemented) and president (responsible for appointing heads for departments) - Lots of oversight when it comes to the actions of bureaucrats (Checks and balances limit power) - Congress controls bureaucracy: funding levels for executive departments and agencies - President controls bureaucracy: appointment power Notes Bureaucracy 3/7/16 Devolution and Privatization: - Devolution: The delegation of Power by the federal government to state and local governments - Privatization:Ashift in responsibility for service provision from the public sector to the private sector - Devolution entails > delegating power to state and local governments