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Bio 242 Exam #3 Notes

by: Kalyn Weaver

Bio 242 Exam #3 Notes Bio 242

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Bio 242 > Bio 242 Exam 3 Notes
Kalyn Weaver
U of L
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About this Document

These notes are material covered for Exam #3
(Dr. Alexander, Dr. Corbitt, Dr. Eason, Dr. Fuselier, Dr. Mansfield-Jones)
Class Notes
BIO 242




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kalyn Weaver on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 242 at University of Louisville taught by (Dr. Alexander, Dr. Corbitt, Dr. Eason, Dr. Fuselier, Dr. Mansfield-Jones) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
Kalyn Weaver  Bio 242 3 March 2016 Chapter 40: Animal Form and Function  Cells interact within interstitial fluid  Homeostasis (maintaining interstitial/extracellular fluid) and tissues   Nutrition and digestion  Circulation (useful for moving extracellular fluids around)  Respiration  Defense (Immunity)  Excretion   Osmoregulation  Homeostasis  The smaller and simpler the animal, the more variation is allowed.  Human: negative feedback (one in which your response to a change corrects and  eliminates that original change) works in the homeostatic control of body temperature. o Body temperature increase: sensors report overheating, hypothalamus detects and  signals out, response – blood vessels in skin dilate, body temperature decreases   normal body temperature.  Effector­ something that can do something about the issue (sweat gland – evaporative  cooling) o Body temperature decreases, sensors report chilling, hypothalamus detects and  signals out, response shivering, blood vessels in skin constrict o Body temperature increases, normal body temperature. Types of Tissues  Epithelial tissue o Covering inside and outside surfaces o Transport across their layers o Very active and absorbing and secreting  o Protection (some)  Connective tissue (bone) o Support o Protection o Wrapping and attaching o Padding o Energy storage  o Some is hard, and some are squishy  Muscle tissue o Movement o Plus complex electrical behavior o Can pull and make other things move  Nervous tissue o Fast data integration and electrical communication  o Coordinate some response  Epithelial Tissue  Cuboidal epithelium  Simple columnar epithelium (extracellular network of proteins called basement  membranes – made of extracellular proteins and glycoprotein)  Pseuodstratified ciliated columnar epithelium   Stratified squamous epithelium (broad, flat, cell shape, can be keratinized)  Simple squamous epithelium  o Simple – 1 layer – better transport o Stratified – 2 or more – better protection  Glandular epithelial tissue can be simple or stratified… Connective Tissue  Bone (osteon, central canal) o Collagen – extracellular protein  Fibrous connective tissue (nuclei) o More collagen fibers   Loose connective tissue (collagenous fiber, elastic fiber) o Used for holding up other tissues  Cartilage (chondrocytes, chondroitin sulfate) o Flexible support and act as a smooth covering for the ends of bones o Cells occupy spaces within an extracellular region but have open little caves  called lacunae – provide open spaces for cells to live in (little islands within the  extracellular matrix)  o Collagen fibers   Adipose tissue (fat droplets) o Good for temperature insulation, chemical energy storage, and for padding around the organs (large and circular)  Blood (white blood cells, plasma, red blood cells) Cells  (sometimes in lacunae)  Only cartilage has this because it’s one of the most rigid Matrix  Solid or fluid  Consists of ground substance and fibers  Bone  Haversian (central) canal, lamellae (organized in a circular way and are all around the  central canal), lacunae, canaliculi  Central canal has a blood vessel   Osteocytes – O2 can be passed along from lacunae to lacunae  Many collagen fibers Blood  RBCS – carry out O2 transport and lack a nucleus (no genetic information, mitochondria, have cytoskeleton) (erythrocytes) and one leukocyte (WBC) – have a nucleus   Plasma – matrix of blood (ground)  Platelets – float passively in the circulatory system and detect danger in the circulatory  system and blood clot Muscle Tissue  Exert force on other stuff and can make other tissues move 1. Cardiac muscle – involuntary muscle type only found in the vertebrate heart  a. Intercalated disk­ cell­to­cell communication that allow for electrical and  mechanical connection  2. Skeletal muscle – voluntary muscle in which the proteins are organized into  sarcomeres, which has a characteristic appearance – striated or striped  a. Mature cells do not undergo cell division  b. Non­voluntary type  3. Smooth muscle  a. Involuntary muscle tissue, because it is not striated b. Its contractile pulling­proteins are not organized into sarcomeres. c. Cells undergo cell division  d. Located in the walls of hollow organs  Cellular Appearance   Skeletal (voluntary) o Large, multinucleated o Voluntary   Smooth (involuntary) o Uninucleated, spindle shaped, unstriated o Involuntary   Cardiac o Uninucleated, striated o Intercalated disks o Involuntary with its own self­acting feature  o Pace­making cardiac muscle cells self­ignite and provide a regular rhythm for the  heartbeat  Nervous Tissues  Neurons­ electrically excitable o Axon (tools used to send electrical signals over long distances), cell body (has  nucleus), dendrite (information input zone) o Have long extensions to carry out long signaling (dendrites)  Axon – action potential is released and the neuron will release neurotransmitters at the  end of the axon o Signaling is rapid   Glial cells – vastly outnumber the neurons  o Important for the normal development of nervous tissue and in regular  communication with the neurons located near the nervous tissue. o Operate at small, locale scales  Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition Animal diets must supply:  All cells use ATP  Fuel supply for work o Fats, carbohydrates, amino acids  Carbon skeletons for biosynthesis o Carbohydrates and/or proteins   Essential minerals (elements) and organic vitamins (usually very complicated that  animals cannot make for themselves) that cannot be manufactured  o Vitamin example: B12 – must come from our diet o Is used for cellular function Essential Nutrients for Animals  1. Some amino acids: animas use 20 amino acids for proteins (8 are essentials a.a. for  human adults; other animals differ) 2. Essential fatty acids o Needed for membrane structure and sources as various signaling molecules  3. Vitamins – much smaller quantities  4. Minerals  Water­soluble vitamins relevant to humans   Vitamin o B2 (riboflavin) o B3 (niacin) o B5 (pantothenic acid for CoA)  General Role: coenzymes for energy metabolism   Deficiency causes: epithelial lesions, nervous system problems o B6 (pyridoxine) o B7 (biotin) o B9 (folate) o B12 (cobalamin)  General Role: required for normal amino acid or nucleic acid metabolism  Deficiency causes: nervous system disorders, anemia, birth defects (folate) o C (ascorbic acid)  General Role: required for collage production in connective tissue   Deficiency causes: tooth loss, bruising, blood vessel failure  Fat­soluble vitamins relevant to humans Vitamin  A (retinol) o GR: making visual pigment o DC: blindness  D (dihydroxycholecalciferol) o GR: essential for Ca++ absorption, plus various other roles o DC: rickets in children, bone defects in adults, possible immune system  deficiencies  E (tocopherol) o GR: antioxidant and cell membrane stabilizer  o DC: nervous system malfunctions? Deficiency rare  K (phylloquinone) o GR: making several blood clotting proteins  o DC: Blood wont clot; excessive blood loss


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