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Comparative Politics 2300 Week 9 Notes

by: Jillian Marks

Comparative Politics 2300 Week 9 Notes POLC2300-06

Marketplace > Tulane University > Political Science > POLC2300-06 > Comparative Politics 2300 Week 9 Notes
Jillian Marks

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These notes cover political participation, parties, and elections in developing countries: ethnic voting and clientelism.
Comparative Politics
Oliveros, Virginia
Class Notes
Comparative Politics
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jillian Marks on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLC2300-06 at Tulane University taught by Oliveros, Virginia in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 03/10/16
Week 9: Political Participation, Parties, and Elections in Developing Countries: Clientelism and Ethnic Voting I. Parties and Elections in New and/or Old Democracies A. New Democracies  Parties/elections tend to work better in well-established democracies  Politicians may have low commitment to electoral politics  Party labels/reputations are less useful in simplifying vote choice because reputations/ideas of parties haven’t been established B. Poor Democracies  Creating organizations of any kind is difficult - Parties less likely to be a stable, formal institution - Difficult for poor people to organize – costly - Survival values vs. self-expression values  Change in democratic regimes takes time and poor people may not be able to afford waiting C. Voting in Poor/New Democracies  Partisanship or ideology not always good predictor of vote choice - High volatility – parties disappearing and emerging - Low partisanship identification  Without strong party identifies other determinants become more important - Retrospective voting - ex. Voting for the same party as the last person you liked a. State of economy = huge determinant b. Latin America – main predictor of electoral outcome = inflation - Clientelism – promise of vote in exchange for goods/services in present - Ethnic voting D. Vote Choice: Partisan Voting  Party labels provide information shortcuts for voters - Takes time/effort to gather necessary information E. Vote Choice: Clientelism  Individualized exchange of goods/favors for political support - “problem-solving network,” links “clients” to politicians - distribute resources (food, medicine, jobs, information, solutions) with the help of intermediaries (brokers)  common in 19 century elections in most western democracies  US cities in 20 century (machine politicians)  Many developing countries today II. Ethnic Voting  In many countries ethnicity is a good predictor of vote choice  Why do people choose to vote for their co-ethnics?  Why do some ethnic divisions become politicized while others don’t? A. Vote Choice: Ethnic Voting  Two reasons why people may vote along ethnic lines - Expressive voting – co-ethnic elected officials are valued by voters regardless of what they do in office - Instrumental voting – people think co-ethnic officials are more likely to implement policies they prefer a. Pragmatic and clientelistic B. Politicizing Ethnic Cleavages  Political cleavage – an alignment between a social cleavage and political party that endures over time  Why some cleavages matter more than others? - Cross-cutting social cleavages are more likely to increase demand for political parties - Historical emergence – history of conflict between groups - Degree of cultural differences - Nature of those differences C. Posner’s New Explanation  Political salience of cleavages depends on size of group that it defines relative to size of area in which the political competition takes place  Chewas and Tumbakas (2004) - Malawi = political enemies - Zambia = political allies  Most powerful determinant of attitudes toward the other group was physical location on one side of the border or the other - Both had same level of development, same electoral system, similar party systems, both former British colonies  Smaller percentage in Zambia than Malawi - Malawi – makes sense to politicize division - Zambia – doesn’t make sense to politicize division, end up combining both groups instead  Logic of political competition forces voters and elites to focus on some cleavages and not others - Only politicize division when it serves a purpose, to build winning political coalitions  Not all ethnic and cultural cleavages become politicized


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