Comparative Politics 2300 Week 9 Notes
Comparative Politics 2300 Week 9 Notes POLC2300-06
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jillian Marks on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLC2300-06 at Tulane University taught by Oliveros, Virginia in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Week 9: Political Participation, Parties, and Elections in Developing Countries: Clientelism and Ethnic Voting I. Parties and Elections in New and/or Old Democracies A. New Democracies Parties/elections tend to work better in well-established democracies Politicians may have low commitment to electoral politics Party labels/reputations are less useful in simplifying vote choice because reputations/ideas of parties haven’t been established B. Poor Democracies Creating organizations of any kind is difficult - Parties less likely to be a stable, formal institution - Difficult for poor people to organize – costly - Survival values vs. self-expression values Change in democratic regimes takes time and poor people may not be able to afford waiting C. Voting in Poor/New Democracies Partisanship or ideology not always good predictor of vote choice - High volatility – parties disappearing and emerging - Low partisanship identification Without strong party identifies other determinants become more important - Retrospective voting - ex. Voting for the same party as the last person you liked a. State of economy = huge determinant b. Latin America – main predictor of electoral outcome = inflation - Clientelism – promise of vote in exchange for goods/services in present - Ethnic voting D. Vote Choice: Partisan Voting Party labels provide information shortcuts for voters - Takes time/effort to gather necessary information E. Vote Choice: Clientelism Individualized exchange of goods/favors for political support - “problem-solving network,” links “clients” to politicians - distribute resources (food, medicine, jobs, information, solutions) with the help of intermediaries (brokers) common in 19 century elections in most western democracies US cities in 20 century (machine politicians) Many developing countries today II. Ethnic Voting In many countries ethnicity is a good predictor of vote choice Why do people choose to vote for their co-ethnics? Why do some ethnic divisions become politicized while others don’t? A. Vote Choice: Ethnic Voting Two reasons why people may vote along ethnic lines - Expressive voting – co-ethnic elected officials are valued by voters regardless of what they do in office - Instrumental voting – people think co-ethnic officials are more likely to implement policies they prefer a. Pragmatic and clientelistic B. Politicizing Ethnic Cleavages Political cleavage – an alignment between a social cleavage and political party that endures over time Why some cleavages matter more than others? - Cross-cutting social cleavages are more likely to increase demand for political parties - Historical emergence – history of conflict between groups - Degree of cultural differences - Nature of those differences C. Posner’s New Explanation Political salience of cleavages depends on size of group that it defines relative to size of area in which the political competition takes place Chewas and Tumbakas (2004) - Malawi = political enemies - Zambia = political allies Most powerful determinant of attitudes toward the other group was physical location on one side of the border or the other - Both had same level of development, same electoral system, similar party systems, both former British colonies Smaller percentage in Zambia than Malawi - Malawi – makes sense to politicize division - Zambia – doesn’t make sense to politicize division, end up combining both groups instead Logic of political competition forces voters and elites to focus on some cleavages and not others - Only politicize division when it serves a purpose, to build winning political coalitions Not all ethnic and cultural cleavages become politicized