Week 6 Notes
Week 6 Notes HY 362
Popular in Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Week 6 Stalin cont. o Why did the rank and file go along? There were a lot of them. They were less revolutionary and more obedient The “Lenin Enrollment” ½ million workers allowed to join party in 1924 Don in order to democratize the party but consequences were the opposite and creates a more submissive party Stalin could build networks of supporters Stalin’s administrative power helped Got rid of Kamenev and Zinoviev o Why was Stalin so successful? He struck a nerve There was already a lot of resentment towards NEP o Russia’s economic growth is really slow NEP had economic and political problems o Lots of people are convinced capitalist counties are going to invade and they won’t be prepared to defend themselves o People wanted a more heroic and aggressive approach to communism o Gladkov’s novel, Cement Stalin’s Russia o Stalin and the Great Turn 1921 – The Party reverses the collectivist policies of War Communism in exchange for limited privatization with the NEP The First Five Year Plan in Industry 1928-1933 “The Great Turn” – revolutionary change The Revolution from Above Characterized by: o Militant class struggle o Idealistic faith in the Cause o Collective and individual calls to heroism o Brutality and suffering o The militarization and politicization of economics in mainstream culture The goals of the First 5 Yr Plan o To remake the land o To remake, or re-forge the Soviet citizen All reflecting the “politicization and militarization of economics” Political Manifesto o How the new political world is going to look o How does it become this? The language of the military related to the economy Dishonor if people didn’t participate and buy into the program The Effects of the First Five Year Plan in Industry In Industry o Unbalanced economic growth: Heavy industry prioritized over consumer goods Heavy industry itself suffered from over and under production and a lack of effective centralized planning Quality of goods also suffered o But also, impressive achievement: Production did increase (even though everyone lied) New industrial areas were created in once deserted areas of Russia A foundation was laid for future economic growth from 1933 on If Stalin hadn’t done this, then they might not have been strong enough to beat the Germans in WWII o Collectivization of Agriculture In 1937, agrarian development is also conceptualized in terms of a military crusade “class war against exploiters” and the forced requisitioning of grain from the countryside Early results were promising, but growth falters because peasants simply sow less land meaning there is less grain for the State to collect In 1929, Stalin announces a new campaign against the countryside The state is now in complete control of the countryside Total elimination of the Kulaks as a class and total collectivization of agriculture The state uses violent tactics to bring the Kolkhoz, the collective farm, under heel Resistance Peasants resist actively and passively to the coercion they experience from the State: o People left villages and went to the cities Caused such an issue, they had to implement an internal passport system o People got drunk all the time and don’t go to work o Work hard on your own little land and not do shit for the communal farm o Have women speak out and protest because their odds of getting beat up/punished were less than for a man o Mass slaughter of livestock rather than handing them over to the collective farm This meant no more fertilizer, no draft power, no more meat or dairy or eggs Effects of Collectivization Positive early results for the State o Procurements rise o The peasantry is under control of the state Negative long term effects for agriculture o Peasants refuse to exert themselves o Productivity suffers o Return to second-serfdom High human consequence o Traditional life is destroyed o Forced famine in the Ukraine in 1932-1933 intentional genocide If resistance is dead, then there is no resistance Ethnic cleansing in order to take over viable land that Russia didn’t have End Ukrainian nationalism o The Cultural Revolution Characteristics of the Cultural Revolution: Social purging based on class o People put on trial for not being from a working class background Generational conflicts (get rid of the old, bring in the new) New ideas about education and planning of space electrification The revolution would transform man’s individual spirit as well as society at large o Was the First Five Year Plan a reflection of totalitarianism or mass participation? o High Stalinism, 1930s Totalitarianism vs. the Revisionists A time of tyranny In culture o Censorship (a cultural iron curtain) o Uniformity in culture and arts – Socialists Realism, conservativism Function of art is to meet the needs of the State In everyday life o Radical policies are reversed to conventional tropes in relation to the family, homosexuality, abortion, and the role of women In economic development o The Radicalism of the First 5 Yr Plan is abandoned o Exchanged for status, wealth, or comfort, traditional education Cult of the leader emerges Mobilization of external and internal enemies
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