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by: Alex Phillips

Notes38-310.pdf History 1020

Alex Phillips
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

notes for Casteel class 3.8 - 3.10
World History II
Cari L Casteel
Class Notes
WWI, Hitler, Mussolini, Nuremburg Laws, 1939 Olympics, Nazis, the SS, Weimar Republic, Mein Kampf, Communism, socialism, Fascism, Stalin, lenin, trotsky, Russian Revolutions
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
NOTES 3.8 – 3.10 Professor: Casteel Alex Phillips RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS BEFORE THE REVOLUTION - LAST ABSOLUTE MONARCHY - Tsar: Nicholas II - 90% population are peasants (don’t own any land) o not industrializing or colonizing - peasants are angry because they don’t have any land INDUSTRIALIZATION OF RUSSIA - borrows money from France to build factories - remember trans-Siberian railway - peasants go to cities but don’t get enough jobs b/c Russia doesn’t have the $ to build enough factories - factory conditions unsafe o workers get mad b/c of conditions and strike - Okrana: Tsar’s police force o Put down uprisings BLOODY SUNDAY - St. Petersburg peaceful marchers protesting - Tsar orders police and military to break it up THE SOVIET - council that controlled St. Petersburg (1905) - Leon Trotsky was the leader CONSTITUTION - October Manifesto o Duma created o Constitution promised - Duma was created to balance power of Tsar o Most members were peasants and they were still mad at Tsar - Tsar dissolved Duma and holds new elections o This shows he is still in absolute power RUSSIA DURING WWI - Tsar Nicholas II took control of Russian army o He had no idea what he was doing - His wife Alexandria was put in charge while he was commanding the army o One of her advisors was Grigori Rasputin RASPUTIN - appeared to “heal” Alexis’ hemophilia - lady’s man - people don’t understand why Alexandria listens to this random guy who came out of no where o this causes them to lose faith in the monarchy - Govt. officials try to associate him and fail at first o He eventually dies from hypothermia from the officials throwing him in cold water ABSOLUTISM FALLS - Revolutions of 1917 (November and March Revolutions) - Petrograd o International Women’s day ( March 8) o Women upset b/c starvation and they protest with thousands of others o Tsar orders military to stop protest (many soldiers refuse) o A week later Tsar Nicholas abdicates - Alexander Kerensky (one of military leaders) and Duma take control as the provisional govt. - At the same time, Petrograd Soviet formed a mini-govt. o Composed of workers and soldier’s deputies VLADAMIR LENIN - leader of Petrograd Soviet - wrote pamphlet “What is to Be Done” o how they can over throw govt. - his version of how socialism should happen o he says workers don’t have enough strength to start a revolution o supposed to start with Vanguard (professionals)  revolution from above: this ideal came to him b/c it got him a part in leading the revolution b/c he isn’t a worker - this idea divides socialists into 2 groups o 1. Mensheviks (minority) o 2. Bolsheviks (majority) -> Lenin - wants to get out of WWI o says to overthrow provisional govt. (conveniently puts him in charge) - leads second revolution -> slogan: “Peace, land, bread” REVOLUTION 2 - Bolsheviks: Red Army lead by Trotsky tries to overthrow provisional government o Successful and now Lenin is in charge - Effect: o No more private property o Puts factories in ownership of factory workers o Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gets out of WWI : Russia gives up chunk of land to Germany LENIN’S REIGN - secret police monitored people who didn’t agree w/ Lenin being in charge or communism o about 50,000 jailed/executed CIVIL WAR - Russia gets in Civil War (Mensheviks) o Reds vs. whites o Whites = Minsheviks + people who don’t disagree with Lenin - Russian economy and society in chaos - Propaganda everywhere - Tsar Nicholas II killed to keep monarchy from starting again (by Red Army) o Executed him and family - White Army look to allies for help against Red Army o US, France, Britain - Red Army wins b/c they were located in major places in Russia and b/c the White Army were separated EFFECT OF CIVIL WAR - 10 million deaths - famine around Bulga (about 5 million die) LENIN’S REIGN CONTINUED - economy : NEP -> New Economic Plan o capitalism + socialism - politics o Bolsheviks become communist o USSR NEP - b/c Soviet Union communist, many nations wont trade w/ them - wanted to improve their industry and agriculture o this is not a communist principle ^^ - Successful: so Lenin wants to move to communism again o Does before he can do this TROTSKY - against NEP b/c wants to convert other to communism o cant be the only communist nation and survive JOESPH STALIN - General Secretary of Party - Thinks USSR can survive as only communist nation - Supports NEP b/c wants USSR to become powerful - Took control after 4 year power struggle w/ Trotsky - Trotsky exiled and killed - Vozhd (leader of the Soviet Union) : self-proclamation - Socialism -> revolution from above o Wanted Soviet Union to be good example of socialism and does so by making Russia an industrial power - Communism + dictatorship - 1941 Soviet Union rises to one of the top 3 economic powers - censorship - Great Purges: killed around 50 million FIVE YEAR PLANS - unrealistic o quotas too high and people punished - collectivization: industrial farming o peasants who opposed were starved o only got what they contributed and if they opposed they contributed nothing, therefore getting no food - industries o build huge projects to show off power o hydroelectric dam, huge steel factory, White-Sea Baltic canal (useless b/c it would freeze) -> convicts built it (didn’t have to pay them) TREATY OF VERSAILLES - Prime minister of Italy: Vitorio Orlando - Treaty of London (1915) o Italy joined the other side and Britain and France said they would give them a hand - Italy only gets part of land they were promised (mad) - King Victor Emanuel II was not viewed as a strong leader - Italy had debt and b/c of that, they had high unemployment o People became angry o Large support for Italian socialist party BENITO MOUSSOLINI - Sociaist party member, but seeing Russia’s conditions, doesn’t think it’s the best form of government - Kicked out of socialist party o He didn’t agree with socialism - Decides to create fascist party: reestablish Roman Empire FASCISM - authoritarian leader - right wing - violence for the sake of violence - anti-communist - war against socialism b/c it goes against nationalism BLACK SHIRTS - wore black b/c it is the color of death - soldiers of Mussolini - most are WWI veterans MUSSOLINI’S RISE TO POWER - Mussolini and other people associated with him elected to parliament - March to Rome o 30,000 people want king Victor to give him power o King Victor lets him be Prime Minister - King’s power is little and by 1925 Italy is a fascist state mainly controlled Mussolini GERMANY - remember Treaty of Versailles was harsh on Germany - no leader in Germany b/c king ran away o France, Britain, US set up govt. in Germany o Weimar Republic WEIMAR REPUBLIC - president every 7 years - The Reichstag was the German Parliament - Chancellor held most power - Democracy (1 in Germany) HITLER AND NAZIS - Nazis -> Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party - Fascist - Hitler= leader of Nazis - Brownshirts (his version of Blackshirts) - Hitler thinks Mussolini is too moderate BEER HALL PUTSCH - Hitler makes speech to try and take power o Arrested and put in jail - While in jail writes “Mein Kamph” MEIN KAMPF - Wanted Germany to conquer Russia and destroy France - Talked about Fascism - Gains following o Becomes Chancellor 1933 o Holds most power in Germany GERMANY - government strips freedom of speech, press, privacy, and assembly - anyone who speaks against Nazi party is thrown in jail o jail fill up so build overflow jail : Dachau o needs more police to implement rules: SS formed REICHSTAG FIRE - Hitler convinced people that communists started fire - Hitler used this to pass Enabling Acts o Only one political party: Nazi Party o Reichstag was powerless - Jews weren’t allowed to have govt. job THE SS - people led by Heinrich Himmler - killed anyone who spoke against Hitler - president of Germany dies and party members elect Hitler president - Military swore allegiance to Hitler, not state THE HITLER YOUTH - changes education curriculum o educate them about fascism - children under 18 (boys) NUREMBURG LAWS - you are only a citizen if you, your parents and grandparents were all born in Germany: pure blood - state has final say in citizenship - only citizens have rights - citizens and non citizens cant get married - Jews are not citizens of Germany OLYMPICS - 1936 Nazi Olympics - torch ritual - shows off how great Hitler is - wants to win all competitions to prove Germany is master race - Jesse Owens becomes a hero in the Olympics o But when he came back to US still discriminated against - Hitler only invites 1 Jewish person to compete in the Olympics just to appease Olympic committee ON THE WAY TO WAR - Rome Bermin Axis: treaty saying Italy and Germany are allies - Anit-Comintern Pact: Japan joins the Italian and German alliance - Germany wants land back that is taken in Treaty of Versailles o Mobilized army and breaks treaty o Marches to Rhineland - Prime Minister Chamberlain (GB) meets with Hitler o Says he will dissolve army after they take over the Rhineland o Munich Agreement - Nazi and Soviet Union meet and sign Nazi Soviet Non-Aggression pact - September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland o Breaks pact with GB and sort of Soviet Union


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