3/10 Communication Sciences Notes
3/10 Communication Sciences Notes SPAU 3304
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPAU 3304 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Garst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Communication Sciences in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
SPEECH SCIENCE - Covers the study of articulation/physiology - Process by which we perceive speech Outline: o Respiration o Phonation o Production and Perception » Vowels » Consonants o Suprasegmentals Breathing (for speech) Regulation of breathing for voice and speech production Breathing: inhalation (inspiration) and exhalation Respiration: gas exchange at level of cell Move CO 2out and bring O2in Ventilation: moving air into and out of the lower airways (i.e., the lungs) Role of Breathing: o Primary Oxygen to cells and removal of carbon dioxide o Secondary Speech production! ALL speech sounds require airflow from the lungs A few important basics… » Airflow: o Fluids (air) flow from greater pressure to lesser pressure (smaller volume, higher pressure will want to cross over to the larger volume, less pressure space.) » Diffusion: o Movement of molecules of fluid from high concentration to low concentration » Boyle’s Law: o At a constant temperature o Air flows from region of greater air density to region of lesser air density Or from region of higher air pressure to region of lower air pressure A Broad Look at Breathing Process of Inhalation: (Diaphragm contracts (moves down)) » Rib cage and lungs expand = » Greater Volume » With more volume there is lower (negative) air pressure inside lungs relative to the atmosphere. » Air rushes in (to balance out the difference in pressure) Process of Exhalation: (Diaphragm relaxes (moves up)) » Lung contraction » Reduced volume » With lower volume there is higher (positive) air pressure inside lungs relative to the atmosphere. » Air rushes outward Anatomy of Lower Airway o Rib cage: 12 sets of ribs 1 – 7 attached to sternum (cartilage attachment; NOT bone) 8 – 10 indirectly attached through costal cartilage 11 – 12 “floating ribs” (embedded in endolymph) Expands area: Front to back Side to Side Top to bottom Analogy of Movement o Upper ribs move in “pump-handle” motion Primarily front and upward displacement Small lateral displacement o Lower ribs move in “bucket-handle” motion Front and upward displacement and lateral displacement o Trachea: Open end faces posterior (connection point with the esophagus) » Bronchial Tree o Approx 20 Generations total (each generation gets smaller, less rigid) o Bronchi…………………then, o Bronchioles, o Alveolar ducts, o Sacs, and o Alveoli (level of gas exchange) Gas Diffusion Must occur quickly » Large surface area of alveoli » Thin and permeable membrane o Lungs: Cone shaped, spongy, paired No muscle 90% air Rests on top of the diaphragm ((= primary muscle of respiration)) Left lung smaller due to the heart **Linkage between the lungs and thorax (ribcage) Pleurae: Airtight membrane Visceral pleura – outside lining of lungs (connects to the…) Parietal pleura – inside of rib cage and top of diaphragm Pleurae Linkage – structures slide, but are bound together, (expanding the lungs) Pneumothorax