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Affiliation and Friendship

by: Dakota Laravia

Affiliation and Friendship PSY 350

Marketplace > Arizona State University > PSY 350 > Affiliation and Friendship
Dakota Laravia

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These notes are from the week of Thursday, February 25th to Tuesday, March 1st. This subject will be covered on the exam which is scheduled for March 24th.
Social Psychology
Makenzie O'Neil
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dakota Laravia on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 350 at Arizona State University taught by Makenzie O'Neil in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 175 views.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
Affiliation and Friendship Thursday, February 25, 2016 1:30 PM *** Friendships are versatile *** What is a friend? - Friend: someonewith whom we have a long-term affectionaterelationship ○ Americans' persona definitions of friendship include such features:  Participate as equals  Enjoy each other's company  Help each other in times of need  Trust one another to act in their best interest  Share similar interests and values  Feel close to one another - What kind of relationship is a friendship? ○ Not all relationships are intimate relationships  We have relationships with everyonewe interact with ○ All relationships can be classified as exchange relationships or communal relationships  Exchange: trade-based relationships  Communal:need-based relationships - Exchange Relationships ○ Focus on giving and receiving ○ Concerned with equity (you get what you give) and reciprocity (what you give is eventually returned ○ Often short term ○ Rule: give to those who will give back, receive as much as you give  i.e. Salespeople, work relationships - Communal Relationships ○ Focus on giving, NOT receiving ○ Concerned with need (give to whoever needs the most at any given time) ○ Individuals feel responsibility toward one another ○ Often long term ○ Rule: give to those in need (even if they cannot give back), receive only when necessary (or not at all)  i.e. Children, family, significant others ○ Maasai herders- osotua  Based on respect and responsibility  Requests for help should only be made when in need  Requests for help must be met  Words like debt and payment or prohibited ○ Ju/hoansi foragers in Namibia and Botswana - hxaro  Friends who live in separate geographical spaces  Friendships is based on regular exchange of gifts and mutual aid  Gifts must be reciprocated equally  But provisions in times of need do not use account keeping and can become very unbalanced ○ Turkana cattle herders - lopai  Friends in separate villages  Can ask for cattle in need, grazing privileges in times of need The Beginning of Friendship: Domain-general theories of affiliation - Affiliation: the process of wanting to be near others and to have pleasant and affectionate interactions with them interactions with them - Domain-generalmodels are models that attemptto explain all behavior using somesimple rule ○ Broadly address why we might engage in affiliation in the first place - Reinforcement-affectmodel ○ Theory that we like people we associatewith positive feelings and dislike those we associate with negative feelings  We like and want to be friends with people who make us laugh and have the same attitudes as us - Social exchange theory ○ Theory that we evaluate relationships based on the trading of benefits within the relationships  We pursue, engage in, and continue relationships that are equitable (costs and benefits are proportionate) - Need to belong ○ Theory that humans have an inherent need to engage in relationships  This need drives us to affiliate with others Who do we choose as friends: friendship and proximity - Proximity-attractionprinciple ○ The tendency to become friends with those who live or work nearby ○ The proximity attractionprinciple may be due partly to the each of exchange with neighbors  Mere exposure effect: the tendency to feel positivelytowards stimuli we have seen frequently ○ What about technology? ○ The internet makes it easier to stay in contact… What purpose do friendships serve? - Domain specific models ○ Domain-specificmodels assume different relationships have different goals at different times ○ Four main goals for affiliating and forming friendships  Getting social support □ We often turn to others for support when we are under stress in order to get social support □ Social support: emotional,informational or material assistance provided by other people in one's social network  Emotional:offering empathy, concern, affection, warmth and care  Informational:giving advice and guidance  Instrumental: concrete,often financial ways people help us □ Health psychology:the study of behavioral and psychological factors that affect illness  Positivehealth benefits associated with having social support □ Gender difference?  Males often respond to stress with "fight or flight"  Women adopt a strategy of "tend and befriend" ◊ Tend = get offspring out of harm's way ◊ Befriend = pull closer to other females  Getting information □ Other people can provide a wealth of facts helpful for solving problems in the physical world  How to build a fire  Making connections for your career  Whether your emotionsare justified □ Our motivationto obtain informationfrom others is driven by a desire for □ Our motivationto obtain informationfrom others is driven by a desire for accurate information  However,we also have a bias to get information from similar others  Friends may be an important counterbalance, balancing accuracy to a certain degree  Gaining status □ Humans often form alliances to improvetheir position in the social dominance hierarchy □ The desire to form friendships with high status individuals is especially strong in status-oriented cultures □ People often try to break social connectionsthat could reflect poorly on them □ Are there gender differences in friendships?  Do men's friendships revolve more around status? ◊ Textbook:men's relationships are marked more by hierarchy and competitionwhile women's friendships are focused more on intimacy ◊ Claim 1: friendships among male adolescents are likely to avoid discussions of intimate topics and instead focus on activitiessuch as competitivesports  Reality: This is based on the idea of do you think this is more likely to be conversationbetween females or between males? ◊ Claim 2: men also emphasize social hierarchy in their relationships more than women do  Reality: based on already activated stereotypes □ Gender differences in friendships  Reality: gender differences in talking about personal problems do not exist in African America students, but they do in white students ◊ In India, men self-disclose just as much as women ◊ Women report in engaging in nonverbal activities just as much as men, and men report just as much talking ◊ Women talk just as much as men  Exchanging material benefits □ Social exchange: trading of benefits within relationships □ Because of the importanceof sharing resources, all societieshave strong rules about sharing □ Equity: state of affairs in which one person's benefits and costs from a relationships are proportion to benefits and costs incurred by partner  Not the only form of social exchange for all relationships □ Models of social exchange  Communal sharing --> all group members share in the group's resources as needed and depend on one another for mutual care --> tight knit family  Authority ranking --> higher-ranking individuals are entitled to loyalty, respect and deference; lower ranking individuals are entitled to protection,advice and leader ship --> military squad  Equality matching --> no one gets more than others; people take turns, share equally and reciprocate benefits --> children playing a game  Market pricing --> individuals trade according to rational rules of self- interest, taking goods and services in proportion to what they put in and seeking the best possible deal --> customer and shopkeeper Summary - 4 most frequently appearing features of friendship Mutual aid ○ Mutual aid ○ Positiveaffect ○ Gift giving ○ Need ○ Self-disclosure, account-keeping, frequent socializing, are not universal or even commonin many cultures - Terms: communalrelationship, exchange relationship, affiliation, proximity-attraction,mere exposure effect, reinforcementaffect model, social exchange theory, social support and subtypes, 4 models of social exchange equity, equity - 4 commonfunctions of friendships ○ Resource exchange proposed as one of the most important - Friendships are versatile depending on the environment,person, culture and relationship stage *** Female friends study (each get $20)


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