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Lecture 03/22

by: Viktoryia Zhuleva

Lecture 03/22 ANTH 10000

Viktoryia Zhuleva
GPA 3.0

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Family and Households and their types
Dr. Richard Blanton
Class Notes
Anthropology, Purdue
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viktoryia Zhuleva on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 10000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Richard Blanton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Liberal Arts at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
Lecture 03/21/2016 The Domestic life of H. Sapiens sapiens: FAMILY AND HOUSEHOLD DIMENTIONS - A family dimension emphasizes the nature of kinship relations among family members: marriage and biological reproduction - A household dimension emphasizes the economy of co-residents who share a dwelling (household economy) The family dimension of domestic life - Two forms of kinship relations: 1. Affinal kin (the family forms though marriage); affines are kin related by marriage (e.g. an affinal family – marriage only) According to the merely universal incest taboo: very few cultures permit marriage between close biological kin, e.g. sibling marriage 2. Consanguineal kin (relations by birth, e.g. parents and children) The domestic life of H. sapience sapience - The household dimension emphasizes the economy of co-residents who share a dwelling (household economy) - Households members coordinate their decision-making: o Work o Family size and spacing of birth o Consumption of goods and services o Residence and migration o Prestige The family dimension is almost always based on husband-wife marriage - Husband-wife marriages are strongly favored and sanctioned in most human societies (i.e. they have authoritative confirmation of mutual obligations and privileges) - Husband-wife family formation is nearly universal (although changing in some societies – e.g. in Indiana, 40% of recent births were to unmarried women) Variation in family Part I: One form is husband-wife marriage: The nuclear family: husband, wife, unmarried children (Other terms that refer to the nuclear family: conjugal, simple, elementary, primary, monogamous) The nuclear family occurs frequent but is not the most common form of the family in societies known ethnographically In the case of nuclear families, married children live separately from parents (“neolocal” post-martial residence) - Neolocal post-martial residence of nuclear families allows for the greatest flexibility of post martial residence - But is only 5% of known societies - (is common among highly mobile foragers and in industrial societies) Variation in Forms of the Family, Part II: Polygamous Families/Households (Multiple spouses are permitted) - Types of marriage allowed as a percent of all ethnographically known societies (but not the percentage of actual families): - Where polygamy is allowed (multiple wives) 84% (although even where permitted, monogamy is often the most frequent from) - Polyandry (multiple husbands) 0.5% - (Monogamy is preferred or mandated form: 15%) Variation, Part III: Extended Families/Households - Humans have a strong tendency to form extended (multi-family) households (married couples reside with parents and/or other married siblings) - The married couple resides with husband’s family (patrilocal or virilocal post-martial residence): 67% of all known societies - The couple resides with wife’s parents (matrilocal post-martial residence): 15% - (neolocal residence is 5% of societies) Forms of Extended Household 1. Stem (one married child remains with parents) – e.g. the U.S. and Europe until the middle 1800s, traditional Japan 2. Joint (married siblings share residence) 3. Complex (multiple generations and multiple married siblings) – e.g. traditional Chinese households Variation in Family and Household, Part IV: Consanguineal 1. Single parent with child (e.g. matrifocal) 2. Co-resident siblings and their children (e.g. Na of China, Nayar in India) (no marriages) Family Household Variation, Part V: “Men’s House System”


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